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See also:
U+6FEB, 濫
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-6FEB

[U+6FEA]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+6FEC]

Translingual[edit]

Han character[edit]

(radical 85, +14 in Chinese, 水+15 in Japanese, 17 strokes in Chinese, 18 strokes in Japanese, cangjie input 水尸戈廿 (ESIT) or 水尸一廿 (ESMT), four-corner 38117, composition)

Derived characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 657, character 3
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 18521
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1067, character 8
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 3, page 1766, character 9
  • Unihan data for U+6FEB

Chinese[edit]

trad.
simp.
alternative forms second round simplified

Glyph origin[edit]

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *ɡ·raːms, *ɡraːmʔ): semantic (water) + phonetic (OC *kraːm, *kraːms).

Pronunciation 1[edit]


Note: laam5 - colloquial variant (“excessive”).

Rime
Character
Reading # 2/2
Initial () (37)
Final () (143)
Tone (調) Departing (H)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () I
Fanqie 𣊟
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/lɑmH/
Pan
Wuyun
/lɑmH/
Shao
Rongfen
/lɑmH/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/lamH/
Li
Rong
/lɑmH/
Wang
Li
/lɑmH/
Bernard
Karlgren
/lɑmH/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
làn
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
laam6
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/2
No. 6094
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*ɡ·raːms/

Definitions[edit]

  1. to overflow; to flood
  2. excessive; indiscriminate
  3. (Min Dong) wet
Synonyms[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Pronunciation 2[edit]



Rime
Character
Reading # 1/2
Initial () (33)
Final () (149)
Tone (調) Rising (X)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () II
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ɦˠamX/
Pan
Wuyun
/ɦᵚamX/
Shao
Rongfen
/ɣamX/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ɦaɨmX/
Li
Rong
/ɣamX/
Wang
Li
/ɣamX/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ɣamX/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
xiàn
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
haam6
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 2/2
No. 6112
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*ɡraːmʔ/

Definitions[edit]

  1. Alternative form of (“eunuch, supervisor”).

Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(common “Jōyō” kanji)

Readings[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Kanji in this term
らん
Grade: S
on’yomi

From Middle Chinese (MC lɑmH).

Pronunciation[edit]

Affix[edit]

(らん) (ran

  1. to overflow
  2. excessive; superfluous

Usage notes[edit]

In modern Japanese, is mostly replaced by , due to the deprecation of non-tōyō kanji caused by the Japanese script reform.

Derived terms[edit]

(Replaced by in modern orthography):

(Not replaced by in modern orthography):


Korean[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Middle Chinese (MC lɑmH).

Historical Readings
Dongguk Jeongun Reading
Dongguk Jeongun, 1448 Recorded as Middle Korean 람〮 (Yale: lám) in Dongguk Jeongun (東國正韻 / 동국정운), 1448.
Middle Korean
Text Eumhun
Gloss (hun) Reading
Hunmong Jahoe, 1527[1] 넘〯ᄯᅵᆯ 람〮 Recorded as Middle Korean 람〮 (Yale: lám) in Hunmong Jahoe (訓蒙字會 / 훈몽자회), 1527.

Pronunciation[edit]

  • (initial position)
    • (SK Standard/Seoul) IPA(key): [na̠(ː)m]
    • Phonetic hangeul: [(ː)]
      • Long vowel distinction only applies at the initial position. Most speakers no longer distinguish vowel length at any position.
  • (non-initial position)

Hanja[edit]

Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

Wikisource

(eumhun 넘칠 (neomchil ram), South Korea 넘칠 (neomchil nam))

  1. Hanja form? of / (to overflow).
  2. Hanja form? of / (excessive; superfluous).

Compounds[edit]

References[edit]

  • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [2]

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

: Hán Nôm readings: lạm, giậm, làm, lặm, lòm, lộm, lợm, lụm, luộm, trộm

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.