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U+76E3, 監
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-76E3

[U+76E2]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+76E4]
See also:

Translingual[edit]

Shinjitai
Simplified
Traditional

Alternative forms[edit]

Note the difference in the upper right component between Chinese, where it resembles (half of , ), and Japanese, where it is rather .

Han character[edit]

(radical 108 +9 in Chinese, 皿+10 in Japanese, in Chinese 14 strokes, in Japanese 15 strokes, cangjie input 尸戈月廿 (SIBT) or 尸一月廿 (SMBT), four-corner 78107, composition ⿱⿰𠂉)

Derived characters[edit]

Descendants[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 796, character 2
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 23032
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1210, character 18
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 4, page 2566, character 3
  • Unihan data for U+76E3

Chinese[edit]

trad.
simp.

Glyph origin[edit]

Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*ɡ·raːm
*ɡ·raːm
*ɡ·raːm
*ɡ·raːm, *ɡ·raːms
*ɡ·raːm
*ɡ·raːm, *qʰlaːms
*ɡ·raːmʔ
*ɡ·raːmʔ
*ɡ·raːmʔ
*ɡ·raːmʔ, *ɡ·raːms, *ɡ·rams
*ɡ·raːmʔ
*ɡ·raːmʔ
*ɡ·raːms, *ɡraːmʔ
*ɡ·raːms, *kʰlaːms, *qʰlaːmʔ
*ɡ·raːms
*kraːm, *kraːms
*kraːm
*kraːm, *kraːms, *kraːms
*ɡraːmʔ
*ɡraːmʔ, *ɡraːms
*ɡraːmʔ
*ɡraːmʔ
*ɡ·lam, *ɡ·lams

Ideogrammic compound (會意):  + . Note the migration of the dot from to a third stroke of /.

Pronunciation 1[edit]


Note:
  • kaⁿ - vernacular;
  • kam/kàm - literary.

  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /t͡ɕian⁵⁵/
Harbin /t͡ɕian⁴⁴/
Tianjin /t͡ɕian²¹/
Jinan /t͡ɕiã²¹³/
Qingdao /t͡ɕiã²¹³/
Zhengzhou /t͡ɕian²⁴/
Xi'an /t͡ɕiã²¹/
Xining /t͡ɕiã⁴⁴/
Yinchuan /t͡ɕian⁴⁴/
Lanzhou /t͡ɕiɛ̃n³¹/
Ürümqi /t͡ɕian⁴⁴/
Wuhan /t͡ɕiɛn⁵⁵/
Chengdu /t͡ɕian⁵⁵/
Guiyang /t͡ɕian⁵⁵/
Kunming /t͡ɕiɛ̃⁴⁴/
Nanjing /t͡ɕien³¹/
Hefei /t͡ɕiĩ²¹/
Jin Taiyuan /t͡ɕie¹¹/
Pingyao /t͡ɕiɑŋ¹³/
/t͡ɕiɑŋ³⁵/ ~督
Hohhot /t͡ɕie³¹/
Wu Shanghai /ke⁵³/
Suzhou /ke̞⁵⁵/
Hangzhou /t͡ɕiẽ̞³³/
Wenzhou /ka³³/
Hui Shexian /t͡ɕie³¹/
/kɛ³¹/
Tunxi /kɔ¹¹/
Xiang Changsha /kan⁵⁵/
Xiangtan /kan⁵⁵/
Gan Nanchang /kan⁴²/
Hakka Meixian /kam⁴⁴/
Taoyuan /kɑm⁵⁵/
Cantonese Guangzhou /kam⁵³/
Nanning /kam⁵⁵/
Hong Kong /kam⁵⁵/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /kam⁵⁵/
/kã⁵⁵/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /kaŋ⁴⁴/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /kaŋ³³/
Shantou (Min Nan) /kam³³/
Haikou (Min Nan) /kam²³/ ~獄
/kam³⁵/ ~察

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/2
Initial () (28)
Final () (149)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () II
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/kˠam/
Pan
Wuyun
/kᵚam/
Shao
Rongfen
/kam/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/kaɨm/
Li
Rong
/kam/
Wang
Li
/kam/
Bernard
Karlgren
/kam/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
jiān
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/2
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
jiān
Middle
Chinese
‹ kæm ›
Old
Chinese
/*[k]ˤram/
English inspect

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/2
No. 6103
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*kraːm/
Notes

Definitions[edit]

  1. to supervise; to oversee
  2. (historical) proctor; supervisor
  3. to control; to take charge; to direct
  4. (historical, of crown prince or senior statesman) to act for the monarch
  5. (historical) dukes or princes under an emperor
  6. to imprison; to incarcerate
  7. prison; jail; gaol
  8. to command; to lead

Compounds[edit]

Pronunciation 2[edit]



Rime
Character
Reading # 2/2
Initial () (28)
Final () (149)
Tone (調) Departing (H)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () II
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/kˠamH/
Pan
Wuyun
/kᵚamH/
Shao
Rongfen
/kamH/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/kaɨmH/
Li
Rong
/kamH/
Wang
Li
/kamH/
Bernard
Karlgren
/kamH/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
jiàn
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 2/2
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
jiàn
Middle
Chinese
‹ kæmH ›
Old
Chinese
/*kˤram-s/
English mirror

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 2/2
No. 6106
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*kraːms/

Definitions[edit]

  1. to reflect; to see
  2. Alternative form of (jiàn, “mirror”).
  3. to use for reference; to draw lessons from
  4. (historical) supervisor; overseer
  5. (historical) imperial office
  6. (historical) eunuch

Compounds[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(common “Jōyō” kanji)

  1. oversee
  2. bureaucrat
  3. government agency or office
  4. manage
  5. control or own

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]


Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

‎(gam) (hangeul , revised gam, McCune-Reischauer kam, Yale kam)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(giam, giám, giớm, giợm, róm, giấm, lổm, ram, rướm, xám)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.