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See also:
U+7D05, 紅
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-7D05

[U+7D04]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+7D06]

Translingual[edit]

Han character[edit]

(radical 120 +3, 9 strokes, cangjie input 女火一 (VFM), four-corner 21910, composition)

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 916, character 1
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 27243
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1343, character 8
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 5, page 3363, character 5
  • Unihan data for U+7D05

Chinese[edit]

trad.
simp.

Glyph origin[edit]

Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*kroːŋ, *ɡroːŋ
*kluːmʔ, *koːŋ
*kluːmʔ
*ŋr'oːŋ, *kʰroːŋ, *kʰoːŋ
*kroːŋ
*kroːŋ, *qʰroːŋ
*kroːŋ
*kroːŋ
*kroːŋ
*kroːŋ
*kroːŋ, *koːŋ, *kuːŋ
*kroːŋ
*kroːŋ, *koːŋ
*kroːŋs, *koːŋs, *ɡoːŋ
*kʰroːŋ
*kʰroːŋ, *kʰoːŋ
*kʰroːŋ
*kʰroːŋ, *kʰoːŋs
*kʰroːŋ, *kʰoːŋ
*kʰroːŋ, *kʰoːŋ, *kʰoːŋs
*kʰroːŋ, *kʰoŋ, *ɡoŋ
*qʰroːŋ
*qʰroːŋ, *qʰoːŋ
*qʰroːŋ
*ɡroːŋ
*ɡroːŋʔ
*ɡ·roːŋ
*koːŋ
*koːŋ
*koːŋ
*koːŋ, *qʰoːŋ, *ɡoːŋ
*koːŋ, *kuːŋ
*koːŋ
*koːŋ
*koːŋs
*koːŋs
*kʰoːŋ, *kʰoːŋs
*kʰoːŋ
*kʰoːŋ
*kʰoːŋ
*kʰoːŋ
*kʰoːŋ, *kʰoːŋʔ, *kʰoːŋs
*kʰoːŋs
*qʰoːŋ
*qʰoːŋʔ
*ɡoːŋ
*ɡoːŋ
*ɡoːŋ
*ɡoːŋ
*ɡoːŋ
*ɡoːŋ, *ɡoːŋʔ
*ɡoːŋʔ
*ɡoːŋʔ
*koŋʔ
*koŋʔ
*kʰoŋ, *qʰoŋ
*kʰoŋʔ, *kʰoŋs
*ɡoŋ
*ɡoŋ
*ɡoŋ
*ɡoŋ

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *ɡoːŋ): semantic  + phonetic  (OC *koːŋ).

Pronunciation 1[edit]


Note:
  • è̤ng - colloquial;
  • hùng - literary ("successful;
  • red bunting").
Note:
  • âng - colloquial;
  • hông - literary.

  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /xuŋ³⁵/
Harbin /xuŋ²⁴/
Tianjin /xuŋ⁴⁵/
Jinan /xuŋ⁴²/
Qingdao /xəŋ⁴²/
Zhengzhou /xuŋ⁴²/
Xi'an /xuŋ²⁴/
Xining /xuə̃²⁴/
Yinchuan /xuŋ⁵³/
Lanzhou /xũn⁵³/
Ürümqi /xuŋ⁵¹/
Wuhan /xoŋ²¹³/
Chengdu /xoŋ³¹/
Guiyang /xoŋ²¹/
Kunming /xoŋ³¹/
Nanjing /xoŋ²⁴/
Hefei /xəŋ⁵⁵/
Jin Taiyuan /xuəŋ¹¹/
Pingyao /xuŋ¹³/
Hohhot /xũŋ³¹/
Wu Shanghai /ɦoŋ²³/
Suzhou /ɦoŋ¹³/
Hangzhou /ɦoŋ²¹³/
Wenzhou /ɦoŋ³¹/
Hui Shexian /xuʌ̃⁴⁴/
Tunxi /xan⁴⁴/
Xiang Changsha /xoŋ¹³/
Xiangtan /ɦən¹²/
Gan Nanchang /fuŋ⁴⁵/
Hakka Meixian /fuŋ¹¹/
Taoyuan /fuŋ¹¹/
Cantonese Guangzhou /hoŋ²¹/
Nanning /huŋ²¹/
Hong Kong /huŋ²¹/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /hɔŋ³⁵/
/aŋ³⁵/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /øyŋ⁵³/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /ɔŋ²¹/
Shantou (Min Nan) /hoŋ⁵⁵/
/aŋ⁵⁵/
Haikou (Min Nan) /hɔŋ³¹/
/aŋ³¹/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (33)
Final () (1)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () I
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ɦuŋ/
Pan
Wuyun
/ɦuŋ/
Shao
Rongfen
/ɣuŋ/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ɦəwŋ/
Li
Rong
/ɣuŋ/
Wang
Li
/ɣuŋ/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ɣuŋ/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
hóng
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
hóng
Middle
Chinese
‹ huwng ›
Old
Chinese
/*ɡˤoŋ/
English pink

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 4055
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*ɡoːŋ/

Definitions[edit]

  1. red
    /   ―  hóng  ―  red (color)
    /   ―  hóngchá  ―  black tea (literally, “red tea”)
  2. (colloquial) popular; in vogue
  3. The red clothes and bunting used on festive occasions.
    /   ―  hóng  ―  to drape in red silk as a sign of honor or for festivity
    /   ―  hóngbāo  ―  red envelope / red packet
  4. (figuratively) revolutionary; Communist; Red
    /   ―  hóngjūn  ―  Red army
  5. worldly
  6. women's
  7. bonus; dividend
    /   ―  fēnhóng  ―  distribute or draw dividends
  8. (Cantonese) blood tofu
    / [Cantonese]  ―  zyu1 hung4 [Jyutping]  ―  pig blood tofu
  9. A surname​. Hong

Compounds[edit]

Pronunciation 2[edit]


Definitions[edit]

  1. Substitute character for (gōng).
  2. Substitute character for (gōng).
    /   ―  gōng  ―  the feminine arts (e.g. needlework, sewing, embroidery)
  3. Placename in the State of Lu during the Spring and Autumn Period in Chinese history, northeast of modern Tai'an, Shandong.

Compounds[edit]

Pronunciation 3[edit]


Definitions[edit]

  1. Substitute character for (jiàng).

Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 6 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. the color crimson, a vivid red edging towards pink

Readings[edit]

(kurenai, beni): hexadecimal color code #D71345
(kurenai, beni): the safflower, Carthamus tinctorius

Etymology 1[edit]

Kanji in this term
くれない
Grade: 6
kun’yomi

/kure no2 awi/ invalid IPA characters (2)/kurenawi//kurenai/

Likely from Old Japanese. Originally a compound of (Kure, China) +‎ (no, possessive particle) +‎ (ai, “indigo”: by extension, “dye”). The 紅花 (benibana) plant (the safflower), from which the kurenai color dye was extracted, was brought to Japan from China.

The kure-no-awi spelling is attested in the Honzō Wamyō and the Wamyō Ruijushō as 久禮乃阿為,[1] while the later kurenawi spelling is attested in the Man'yōshū.[2][3][4]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

(hiragana くれない, rōmaji kurenai, historical hiragana くれなゐ)

  1. the color crimson, a vivid red edging towards pink
    • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 19, poem 4139), text here
       (はるの) (その) (くれなゐ) () () () (ももの) (はな)下照道 (したでるみち) ()出立 (いでたつ)𡢳嬬 (をとめ) [Man'yōgana]
       (はる) (その) (くれなゐ)にほふ (もも) (はな)下照 (したで) (みち) () ()娘子 (をとめ) [Modern spelling]
      haru no sono kurenawi nihofu momo no hana shitaderu michi ni idetatsu otome
      My whole spring arbor radiates a crimson glow: blossoms of the peach shine down on the garden path where a maiden steps in view.[6]
  2. the benibana or safflower from which this color is extracted, Carthamus tinctorius
    • 905, Kokin Wakashū (book 13, poem 661; also Shinsen Man'yōshū, volume 1, book 5, poem 100)
       (くれなゐ) (いろ)にはいでじ (かく) () (した)かよひて (こひ) ()ぬとも
      kurenawi no iro ni wa ideji kakure-nu no shita ni kayohite kohi wa shinu tomo
      I shall not show it as a safflower flaunts its red―not though I perish of a love kept as secret as streams in a hidden marsh.[7]
Synonyms[edit]
Derived terms[edit]
(beni): lipstick
(beni): rouge

Proper noun[edit]

(hiragana くれない, rōmaji Kurenai)

  1. A female given name
  2. A surname​.

Etymology 2[edit]

Kanji in this term
べに
Grade: 6
kun’yomi

Derivation unclear. Few native Japanese words begin with voiced plosives, suggesting that this term was borrowed. Alternatively, may be from Okinawan bin as in 紅型 (bingata, a type of brightly colored Okinawan dying technique), though that derivation is also unclear.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

(hiragana べに, rōmaji beni)

  1. the color crimson, a vivid red edging towards pink
  2. the benibana or safflower from which this color is extracted, Carthamus tinctorius
  3. the crimson pigment extracted from the benibana, used in cosmetics and as a food coloring
  4. rouge, a red cosmetic traditionally made from the benibana
  5. lipstick or lip liner, also traditionally made from the benibana
Synonyms[edit]
Derived terms[edit]

Proper noun[edit]

(hiragana べに, rōmaji Beni)

  1. A female given name
  2. A surname​.
(aka): hexadecimal color code #FF0000

Etymology 3[edit]

Kanji in this term
あか
Grade: 6
kun’yomi

Alternate spelling for (aka, red).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

(hiragana あか, rōmaji aka)

  1. Alternative spelling of (red)
Usage notes[edit]

The spelling for aka carries connotations of a deeper red or crimson color.

Proper noun[edit]

(hiragana あか, rōmaji Aka)

  1. A female given name
(momi): A princess doll showing the momi kimono liner.

Etymology 4[edit]

Kanji in this term
もみ
Grade: 6
kun’yomi

From 揉み (momi, kneading, stem form of verb momu), by extension from the kneading of cloth during the dying process.

Alternative forms[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

(hiragana もみ, rōmaji momi)

  1. silk cloth dyed an even shade of one color, often a deep gold dyed again with kurenai, traditionally used as a kimono liner
Synonyms[edit]

Proper noun[edit]

(hiragana もみ, rōmaji Momi)

  1. A female given name
(): hexadecimal color code #D71345

Etymology 5[edit]

Kanji in this term
こう
Grade: 6
on’yomi

From Middle Chinese (MC ɦuŋ). The kan'on pronunciation, so likely a later borrowing.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

(hiragana こう, rōmaji )

  1. the kurenai color: the color crimson, a vivid red edging towards pink
Idioms[edit]
Derived terms[edit]

Proper noun[edit]

(hiragana こう, rōmaji )

  1. A female given name

References[edit]

  1. ^ “染色にみる人間と色の関わり-二つの色名「クレナイ」と「ベニ」をめぐって- [Relationships between humans and color in the dyeing process, concering the names of color crimson: "kurenai" and "beni"]”, in ムラサキ [Murasaki][1], Shin Nippon Pharmaceutical Medicinal Plant Research Institute, Shōko Fujii
  2. ^ c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 4, poem 683), text here
  3. ^ c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 7, poem 1297), text here
  4. ^ c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 13, poem 3227), text here
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9
  6. ^ Edwin A. Cranston (1998) The Gem-Glistening Cup, illustrated edition, Stanford University Press, ISBN 0-8047-3157-8, page 466
  7. ^ Helen Craig McCullough (1985) Brocade by Night: Kokin Wakashū and the Court Style in Japanese Classical Poetry, Stanford University Press, ISBN 0-8047-6645-2, page 264

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

(hong, gong) (hangeul , , McCune-Reischauer hong, kong, Yale hong, kong)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(hồng, hường)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.