Definition from Wiktionary, the free dictionary
Jump to: navigation, search
See also:
U+7D05, 紅
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-7D05

[U+7D04]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+7D06]

Translingual[edit]

Han character[edit]

(radical 120 +3, 9 strokes, cangjie input 女火一 (VFM), four-corner 21910, composition)

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 916, character 1
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 27243
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1343, character 8
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 5, page 3363, character 5
  • Unihan data for U+7D05

Chinese[edit]

trad.
simp.

Glyph origin[edit]

Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*kroːŋ, *ɡroːŋ
*kluːmʔ, *koːŋ
*kluːmʔ
*ŋr'oːŋ, *kʰroːŋ, *kʰoːŋ
*kroːŋ
*kroːŋ, *qʰroːŋ
*kroːŋ
*kroːŋ
*kroːŋ
*kroːŋ
*kroːŋ, *koːŋ, *kuːŋ
*kroːŋ
*kroːŋ, *koːŋ
*kroːŋs, *koːŋs, *ɡoːŋ
*kʰroːŋ
*kʰroːŋ, *kʰoːŋ
*kʰroːŋ
*kʰroːŋ, *kʰoːŋs
*kʰroːŋ, *kʰoːŋ
*kʰroːŋ, *kʰoːŋ, *kʰoːŋs
*kʰroːŋ, *kʰoŋ, *ɡoŋ
*qʰroːŋ
*qʰroːŋ, *qʰoːŋ
*qʰroːŋ
*ɡroːŋʔ
*ɡ·roːŋ
*koːŋ
*koːŋ
*koːŋ
*koːŋ, *qʰoːŋ, *ɡoːŋ
*koːŋ, *kuːŋ
*koːŋ
*koːŋ
*koːŋs
*koːŋs
*kʰoːŋ, *kʰoːŋs
*kʰoːŋ
*kʰoːŋ
*kʰoːŋ
*kʰoːŋ
*kʰoːŋ, *kʰoːŋʔ, *kʰoːŋs
*kʰoːŋs
*qʰoːŋ
*qʰoːŋʔ
*ɡoːŋ
*ɡoːŋ
*ɡoːŋ
*ɡoːŋ
*ɡoːŋ
*ɡoːŋ, *ɡoːŋʔ
*ɡoːŋʔ
*ɡoːŋʔ
*koŋʔ
*koŋʔ
*kʰoŋ, *qʰoŋ
*kʰoŋʔ, *kʰoŋs
*ɡoŋ
*ɡoŋ
*ɡoŋ
*ɡoŋ

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *ɡoːŋ): semantic  + phonetic  (OC *koːŋ).

Pronunciation 1[edit]


Note:
  • è̤ng - colloquial;
  • hùng - literary ("successful;
  • red bunting").
  • Min Nan
  • Note:
    • âng - colloquial;
    • hông - literary.
  • Wu
  • Xiang

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /xuŋ³⁵/
    Harbin /xuŋ²⁴/
    Tianjin /xuŋ⁴⁵/
    Jinan /xuŋ⁴²/
    Qingdao /xəŋ⁴²/
    Zhengzhou /xuŋ⁴²/
    Xi'an /xuŋ²⁴/
    Xining /xuə̃²⁴/
    Yinchuan /xuŋ⁵³/
    Lanzhou /xũn⁵³/
    Ürümqi /xuŋ⁵¹/
    Wuhan /xoŋ²¹³/
    Chengdu /xoŋ³¹/
    Guiyang /xoŋ²¹/
    Kunming /xoŋ³¹/
    Nanjing /xoŋ²⁴/
    Hefei /xəŋ⁵⁵/
    Jin Taiyuan /xuəŋ¹¹/
    Pingyao /xuŋ¹³/
    Hohhot /xũŋ³¹/
    Wu Shanghai /ɦoŋ²³/
    Suzhou /ɦoŋ¹³/
    Hangzhou /ɦoŋ²¹³/
    Wenzhou /ɦoŋ³¹/
    Hui Shexian /xuʌ̃⁴⁴/
    Tunxi /xan⁴⁴/
    Xiang Changsha /xoŋ¹³/
    Xiangtan /ɦən¹²/
    Gan Nanchang /fuŋ⁴⁵/
    Hakka Meixian /fuŋ¹¹/
    Taoyuan /fuŋ¹¹/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /hoŋ²¹/
    Nanning /huŋ²¹/
    Hong Kong /huŋ²¹/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /hɔŋ³⁵/
    /aŋ³⁵/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /øyŋ⁵³/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /ɔŋ²¹/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /hoŋ⁵⁵/
    /aŋ⁵⁵/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /hɔŋ³¹/
    /aŋ³¹/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (33)
    Final () (1)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () I
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ɦuŋ/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ɦuŋ/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ɣuŋ/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ɦəwŋ/
    Li
    Rong
    /ɣuŋ/
    Wang
    Li
    /ɣuŋ/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ɣuŋ/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    hóng
    Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    hóng
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ huwng ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*ɡˤoŋ/
    English pink

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 4055
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*ɡoːŋ/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. red
      /   ―  hóng  ―  red (color)
      /   ―  hóngchá  ―  black tea (literally, “red tea”)
    2. (colloquial) popular; in vogue
    3. The red clothes and bunting used on festive occasions.
      /   ―  hóng  ―  to drape in red silk as a sign of honor or for festivity
      /   ―  hóngbāo  ―  red envelope / red packet
    4. (figuratively) revolutionary; Communist; Red
      /   ―  hóngjūn  ―  Red army
    5. worldly
    6. women's
    7. bonus; dividend
      /   ―  fēnhóng  ―  distribute or draw dividends
    8. (Cantonese) blood tofu
      / [Cantonese]  ―  zyu1 hung4 [Jyutping]  ―  pig blood tofu
    9. A surname​. Hong

    Compounds[edit]

    Pronunciation 2[edit]


    Definitions[edit]

    1. Substitute character for (gōng).
    2. Substitute character for (gōng).
      /   ―  gōng  ―  the feminine arts (e.g. needlework, sewing, embroidery)
    3. Placename in the State of Lu during the Spring and Autumn Period in Chinese history, northeast of modern Tai'an, Shandong.

    Compounds[edit]

    Pronunciation 3[edit]


    Definitions[edit]

    1. Substitute character for (jiàng).

    Japanese[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (grade 6 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    1. the color crimson, a vivid red edging towards pink

    Readings[edit]

    (kurenai, beni): hexadecimal color code #D71345
    (kurenai, beni): the safflower, Carthamus tinctorius

    Etymology 1[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    くれない
    Grade: 6
    kun’yomi

    /kure no2 awi/ invalid IPA characters (2)/kurenawi//kurenai/

    Likely from Old Japanese. Originally a compound of (Kure, China) +‎ (no, possessive particle) +‎ (ai, “indigo”: by extension, “dye”). The 紅花 (benibana) plant (the safflower), from which the kurenai color dye was extracted, was brought to Japan from China.

    The kure-no-awi spelling is attested in the Honzō Wamyō and the Wamyō Ruijushō as 久禮乃阿為,[1] while the later kurenawi spelling is attested in the Man'yōshū.[2][3][4]

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana くれない, rōmaji kurenai, historical hiragana くれなゐ)

    1. the color crimson, a vivid red edging towards pink
      • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 19, poem 4139), text here
         (はるの) (その) (くれなゐ) () () () (ももの) (はな)下照道 (したでるみち) ()出立 (いでたつ)𡢳嬬 (をとめ) [Man'yōgana]
         (はる) (その) (くれなゐ)にほふ (もも) (はな)下照 (したで) (みち) () ()娘子 (をとめ) [Modern spelling]
        haru no sono kurenawi nihofu momo no hana shitaderu michi ni idetatsu otome
        My whole spring arbor radiates a crimson glow: blossoms of the peach shine down on the garden path where a maiden steps in view.[6]
    2. the benibana or safflower from which this color is extracted, Carthamus tinctorius
      • 905, Kokin Wakashū (book 13, poem 661; also Shinsen Man'yōshū, volume 1, book 5, poem 100)
         (くれなゐ) (いろ)にはいでじ (かく) () (した)かよひて (こひ) ()ぬとも
        kurenawi no iro ni wa ideji kakure-nu no shita ni kayohite kohi wa shinu tomo
        I shall not show it as a safflower flaunts its red―not though I perish of a love kept as secret as streams in a hidden marsh.[7]
    Synonyms[edit]
    Derived terms[edit]
    (beni): lipstick
    (beni): rouge

    Proper noun[edit]

    (hiragana くれない, rōmaji Kurenai)

    1. A female given name
    2. A surname​.

    Etymology 2[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    べに
    Grade: 6
    kun’yomi

    Derivation unclear. Few native Japanese words begin with voiced plosives, suggesting that this term was borrowed. Alternatively, may be from Okinawan bin as in 紅型 (bingata, a type of brightly colored Okinawan dying technique), though that derivation is also unclear.

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana べに, rōmaji beni)

    1. the color crimson, a vivid red edging towards pink
    2. the benibana or safflower from which this color is extracted, Carthamus tinctorius
    3. the crimson pigment extracted from the benibana, used in cosmetics and as a food coloring
    4. rouge, a red cosmetic traditionally made from the benibana
    5. lipstick or lip liner, also traditionally made from the benibana
    Synonyms[edit]
    Derived terms[edit]

    Proper noun[edit]

    (hiragana べに, rōmaji Beni)

    1. A female given name
    2. A surname​.
    (aka): hexadecimal color code #FF0000

    Etymology 3[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    あか
    Grade: 6
    kun’yomi

    Alternate spelling for (aka, red).

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana あか, rōmaji aka)

    1. Alternative spelling of (red)
    Usage notes[edit]

    The spelling for aka carries connotations of a deeper red or crimson color.

    Proper noun[edit]

    (hiragana あか, rōmaji Aka)

    1. A female given name
    (momi): A princess doll showing the momi kimono liner.

    Etymology 4[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    もみ
    Grade: 6
    kun’yomi

    From 揉み (momi, kneading, stem form of verb momu), by extension from the kneading of cloth during the dying process.

    Alternative forms[edit]

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana もみ, rōmaji momi)

    1. silk cloth dyed an even shade of one color, often a deep gold dyed again with kurenai, traditionally used as a kimono liner
    Synonyms[edit]

    Proper noun[edit]

    (hiragana もみ, rōmaji Momi)

    1. A female given name
    (): hexadecimal color code #D71345

    Etymology 5[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    こう
    Grade: 6
    on’yomi

    From Middle Chinese (MC ɦuŋ). The kan'on pronunciation, so likely a later borrowing.

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana こう, rōmaji )

    1. the kurenai color: the color crimson, a vivid red edging towards pink
    Idioms[edit]
    Derived terms[edit]

    Proper noun[edit]

    (hiragana こう, rōmaji )

    1. A female given name

    References[edit]

    1. ^ “染色にみる人間と色の関わり-二つの色名「クレナイ」と「ベニ」をめぐって- [Relationships between humans and color in the dyeing process, concering the names of color crimson: "kurenai" and "beni"]”, in ムラサキ [Murasaki]‎[1], Shin Nippon Pharmaceutical Medicinal Plant Research Institute, Shōko Fujii
    2. ^ c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 4, poem 683), text here
    3. ^ c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 7, poem 1297), text here
    4. ^ c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 13, poem 3227), text here
    5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    6. ^ Edwin A. Cranston (1998) The Gem-Glistening Cup, illustrated edition, Stanford University Press, →ISBN, page 466
    7. ^ Helen Craig McCullough (1985) Brocade by Night: Kokin Wakashū and the Court Style in Japanese Classical Poetry, Stanford University Press, →ISBN, page 264

    Korean[edit]

    Hanja[edit]

    (hong, gong) (hangeul , , McCune-Reischauer hong, kong, Yale hong, kong)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    (hồng, hường)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.