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Translingual[edit]

Han character[edit]

(radical 120, +3, 9 strokes, cangjie input 女火一 (VFM), four-corner 21910, composition)

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 916, character 1
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 27243
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1343, character 8
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 5, page 3363, character 5
  • Unihan data for U+7D05

Chinese[edit]

trad.
simp.

Glyph origin[edit]

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *ɡoːŋ): semantic  + phonetic  (OC *koːŋ).

Pronunciation 1[edit]


Note:
  • è̤ng - colloquial;
  • hùng - literary ("successful;
  • red bunting").
  • Min Nan
  • Note:
    • âng - colloquial;
    • hông - literary.
  • Wu
  • Xiang

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /xuŋ³⁵/
    Harbin /xuŋ²⁴/
    Tianjin /xuŋ⁴⁵/
    Jinan /xuŋ⁴²/
    Qingdao /xəŋ⁴²/
    Zhengzhou /xuŋ⁴²/
    Xi'an /xuŋ²⁴/
    Xining /xuə̃²⁴/
    Yinchuan /xuŋ⁵³/
    Lanzhou /xũn⁵³/
    Ürümqi /xuŋ⁵¹/
    Wuhan /xoŋ²¹³/
    Chengdu /xoŋ³¹/
    Guiyang /xoŋ²¹/
    Kunming /xoŋ³¹/
    Nanjing /xoŋ²⁴/
    Hefei /xəŋ⁵⁵/
    Jin Taiyuan /xuəŋ¹¹/
    Pingyao /xuŋ¹³/
    Hohhot /xũŋ³¹/
    Wu Shanghai /ɦoŋ²³/
    Suzhou /ɦoŋ¹³/
    Hangzhou /ɦoŋ²¹³/
    Wenzhou /ɦoŋ³¹/
    Hui Shexian /xuʌ̃⁴⁴/
    Tunxi /xan⁴⁴/
    Xiang Changsha /xoŋ¹³/
    Xiangtan /ɦən¹²/
    Gan Nanchang /fuŋ⁴⁵/
    Hakka Meixian /fuŋ¹¹/
    Taoyuan /fuŋ¹¹/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /hoŋ²¹/
    Nanning /huŋ²¹/
    Hong Kong /huŋ²¹/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /hɔŋ³⁵/
    /aŋ³⁵/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /øyŋ⁵³/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /ɔŋ²¹/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /hoŋ⁵⁵/
    /aŋ⁵⁵/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /hɔŋ³¹/
    /aŋ³¹/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (33)
    Final () (1)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () I
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ɦuŋ/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ɦuŋ/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ɣuŋ/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ɦəwŋ/
    Li
    Rong
    /ɣuŋ/
    Wang
    Li
    /ɣuŋ/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ɣuŋ/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    hóng
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    hóng
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ huwng ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*ɡˤoŋ/
    English pink

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 4055
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*ɡoːŋ/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. red
      /   ―  hóng  ―  red (color)
      /   ―  hóngchá  ―  black tea (literally, “red tea”)
    2. (colloquial) popular; in vogue
    3. The red clothes and bunting used on festive occasions.
      /   ―  hóng  ―  to drape in red silk as a sign of honor or for festivity
      /   ―  hóngbāo  ―  red envelope / red packet
    4. (figuratively) revolutionary; Communist; Red
      /   ―  hóngjūn  ―  Red army
    5. worldly
    6. women's
    7. bonus; dividend
      /   ―  fēnhóng  ―  distribute or draw dividends
    8. (Cantonese) blood tofu
      / [Cantonese]  ―  zyu1 hung4 [Jyutping]  ―  pig blood tofu
    9. A surname​. Hong

    Compounds[edit]

    Pronunciation 2[edit]


    Definitions[edit]

    1. Substitute character for (gōng).
    2. Substitute character for (gōng).
      /   ―  gōng  ―  the feminine arts (e.g. needlework, sewing, embroidery)
    3. Placename in the State of Lu during the Spring and Autumn Period in Chinese history, northeast of modern Tai'an, Shandong.

    Compounds[edit]

    Pronunciation 3[edit]


    Definitions[edit]

    1. Substitute character for (jiàng).

    Japanese[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (grade 6 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    1. crimson
    2. female
    3. work done by women

    Readings[edit]

    Compounds[edit]

    Etymology 1[edit]

    (kurenai, beni, ): hexadecimal color code #D71345
    (kurenai, beni): the safflower, Carthamus tinctorius
    Kanji in this term
    くれない
    Grade: 6
    kun’yomi

    ⟨kure no2 awi⟩/kurenawi//kurenai/

    From Old Japanese.

    Shift from 呉の藍 (Kure no ai):[1][2] (Kure, China) +‎ (no, possessive particle) +‎ (ai, “indigo”: by extension, “dye”). The safflower, from which the crimson dye was extracted, was brought to Japan from China.

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana くれない, rōmaji kurenai, historical hiragana くれなゐ)

    1. the color crimson, a vivid red edging towards pink
      Synonyms: 紅色 (kurenai-iro, kōshoku, beni-iro), 丹紅 (tankō)
      • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 19, poem 4139), text here
         (はるの) (その) (くれなゐ) () () () (ももの) (はな)下照道 (したでるみち) ()出立 (いでたつ)𡢳嬬 (をとめ) [Man'yōgana]
         (はる) (その) (くれなゐ)にほふ (もも) (はな) (した) () (みち) () ()娘子 (をとめ) [Modern spelling]
        haru no sono kurenai niou momo no hana shitaderu michi ni idetatsu otome
        My whole spring arbor radiates a crimson glow: blossoms of the peach shine down on the garden path where a maiden steps in view.[3]
    2. the safflower (Carthamus tinctorius), from which this color is extracted
      Synonyms: 呉の藍 (Kure no ai), 紅花 (kōka, benibana), 末摘花 (suetsumuhana)
      • 905, Kokin Wakashū (book 13, poem 661)
         (くれなゐ) (いろ)にはいでじ (かく) () (した)にかよひて (こひ) ()ぬとも
        kurenai no iro ni wa ideji kakure nu no shita ni kayoite koi wa shinu to mo
        I shall not show it as a safflower flaunts its red―not though I perish of a love kept as secret as streams in a hidden marsh.[4]
    Derived terms[edit]
    Proverbs[edit]

    Proper noun[edit]

    (hiragana くれない, rōmaji Kurenai)

    1. a female given name
    2. a surname

    Etymology 2[edit]

    (beni): lipstick
    (beni): rouge
    Kanji in this term
    べに
    Grade: 6
    kun’yomi

    */peni//feni//beni/

    First attested in The Pillow Book, completed in 1002.

    Shift from *heni, attested in the Wamyō Ruijushō (938 CE) with the original sense of "rouge".

    The ni is definitely (ni, red earth, cinnabar), while the initial he/be remains uncertain.

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana べに, rōmaji beni)

    1. the color crimson, a vivid red edging towards pink
      Synonyms: 紅色 (kurenai-iro, kōshoku, beni-iro), 丹紅 (tankō)
    2. Short for 紅花 (benibana). the safflower (Carthamus tinctorius), from which this color is extracted
    3. the crimson pigment extracted from safflower petals, used in cosmetics and as a food coloring
      Synonym: 臙脂 (enji)
    4. rouge (red cosmetic traditionally made from safflowers)
      Synonym: 頬紅 (hōbeni)
    5. lipstick, lip liner (also traditionally made from safflowers)
      Synonym: 口紅 (kuchibeni)
    Derived terms[edit]
    Idioms[edit]

    Proper noun[edit]

    (hiragana べに, rōmaji Beni)

    1. a female given name
    2. a surname

    Etymology 3[edit]

    (aka): hexadecimal color code #FF0000
    Kanji in this term
    あか
    Grade: 6
    kun’yomi

    Alternate spelling for (aka, red).

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana あか, rōmaji aka)

    1. Alternative spelling of (aka, red)
    Usage notes[edit]

    The spelling for aka carries connotations of a deeper red or crimson color.

    Proper noun[edit]

    (hiragana あか, rōmaji Aka)

    1. a female given name

    Etymology 4[edit]

    (momi): A princess doll showing the momi kimono liner.
    Kanji in this term
    もみ
    Grade: 6
    kun’yomi

    From 揉み (momi, kneading, stem form of verb momu), by extension from the kneading of cloth during the dyeing process.

    Alternative forms[edit]

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana もみ, rōmaji momi)

    1. silk cloth dyed an even shade of one color, often a deep gold dyed again with crimson, traditionally used as a kimono liner
      Synonym: 本紅 (hon-momi)
    Derived terms[edit]

    Proper noun[edit]

    (hiragana もみ, rōmaji Momi)

    1. a female given name

    Etymology 5[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    こう
    Grade: 6
    on’yomi

    From Middle Chinese (MC ɦuŋ).

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana こう, rōmaji )

    1. the color crimson, a vivid red edging towards pink
      Synonym: 紅色 (kurenai-iro, kōshoku, beni-iro)
    Idioms[edit]
    Derived terms[edit]

    Proper noun[edit]

    (hiragana こう, rōmaji )

    1. a female given name

    References[edit]

    1. ^ 1995, 大辞泉 (Daijisen) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan, →ISBN
    2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    3. ^ Edwin A. Cranston (1998) The Gem-Glistening Cup, illustrated edition, Stanford University Press, →ISBN, page 466
    4. ^ Helen Craig McCullough (1985) Brocade by Night: Kokin Wakashū and the Court Style in Japanese Classical Poetry, Stanford University Press, →ISBN, page 264

    Korean[edit]

    Hanja[edit]

    (hong, gong) (hangeul , , McCune–Reischauer hong, kong, Yale hong, kong)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    (hồng, hường)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.