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U+8679, 虹
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-8679

[U+8678]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+867A]

Translingual[edit]

Han character[edit]

(radical 142, +3, 9 strokes, cangjie input 中戈一 (LIM), four-corner 51110, composition)

Derived characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 1076, character 40
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 32830
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1545, character 23
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 4, page 2834, character 8
  • Unihan data for U+8679

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.
alternative forms

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shang Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han)
Oracle bone script Small seal script
虹-oracle.svg 虹-seal.svg

Originally pictographic (象形) in the oracle bone script. The ancient Chinese regarded the rainbow as a two-headed creature.

In the seal script, it has become a phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *kroːŋs, *koːŋs, *ɡoːŋ): semantic  (insect; creature) + phonetic  (OC *koːŋ).

Etymology[edit]

Probably non-Sino-Tibetan; compare Proto-Mien *kluŋᴬ (rainbow), Thai รุ้ง (rúng, rainbow), Zhuang duzdoengz (rainbow), saidoengz (rainbow) (Schuessler, 2007).

Benedict (1986) and Carr (1990) relate this to (OC *b·roŋ, *mroːŋ, “dragon”) and (OC *ɡoːŋ, “red”).

Pronunciation 1[edit]


Note: jiàng, gàng - only used as a standalone word.
Note:
  • gang4 - vernacular;
  • hong2 - literary.
  • (Dungan)
    (Note: Dungan pronunciation is currently experimental and may be inaccurate.)
  • Cantonese
  • Gan
  • Note:
    • gong4 - vernacular;
    • fung4 - literary.
  • Hakka
  • Jin
  • Note:
    • jion2 - vernacular;
    • hung1 - literary.
  • Min Bei
  • Note:
    • gô̤ng - vernacular;
    • ǒng - literary.
  • Min Dong
  • Note:
    • kê̤ṳng - vernacular;
    • hùng - literary.
  • Min Nan
  • Note:
    • khēng/khěng - vernacular;
    • hông - literary.
    Note:
    • kêng6 - vernacular;
    • hong5 - literary.
  • Wu
  • Xiang
    • (Changsha)
      • Wiktionary: gan4 / hong2
      • Sinological IPA (key) (old-style): /kan⁴⁵/, /xʊŋ¹³/
      • Sinological IPA (key) (new-style): /kan⁴⁵/, /xən¹³/
  • Note:
    • gan4 - vernacular;
    • hong2 - literary.

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/3 3/3
    Initial () (33) (28)
    Final () (1) (9)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø) Departing (H)
    Openness (開合) Open Open
    Division () I II
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ɦuŋ/ /kˠʌŋH/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ɦuŋ/ /kᵚɔŋH/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ɣuŋ/ /kɔŋH/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ɦəwŋ/ /kaɨwŋH/
    Li
    Rong
    /ɣuŋ/ /kɔŋH/
    Wang
    Li
    /ɣuŋ/ /kɔŋH/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ɣuŋ/ /kɔŋH/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    hóng jiàng
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2 2/2
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    hóng jiàng
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ huwng › ‹ kæwngH ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*m-kˁoŋ/ /*kˁroŋ-s/
    English rainbow rainbow

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/3 3/3
    No. 4004 4056
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0 0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*kroːŋs/ /*ɡoːŋ/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. rainbow (Classifier: m;  m)
        ―  cǎihóng  ―  rainbow
      天上  ―  Tiānshàng chū jiàng le.  ―  There's a rainbow in the sky.
    2. (literary, figuratively) bridge
    Synonyms[edit]

    Compounds[edit]

    Pronunciation 2[edit]


    Definitions[edit]

    1. to fester
    2. Only used in 虹洞.

    Pronunciation 3[edit]



    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 2/3
    Initial () (28)
    Final () (1)
    Tone (調) Departing (H)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () I
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /kuŋH/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /kuŋH/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /kuŋH/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /kəwŋH/
    Li
    Rong
    /kuŋH/
    Wang
    Li
    /kuŋH/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /kuŋH/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    gòng
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    jiàng
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ kæwngH ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*kˁroŋ-s/
    English rainbow

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 2/3
    No. 4032
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*koːŋs/
    Notes

    Definitions[edit]

    1. A county in modern Anhui

    Japanese[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (common “Jōyō” kanji)

    Readings[edit]

    Compounds[edit]

    Etymology 1[edit]

    Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
    Wikipedia ja
    English Wikipedia has an article on:
    Wikipedia
    (niji, nuji, noji): a rainbow.
    Kanji in this term
    にじ
    Grade: S
    kun’yomi

    ⟨nizi⟩/niʑi/

    From Old Japanese,[1] attested as man'yōgana form 爾之 in the 和名類聚抄 (Wamyō Ruijushō) of c.931-938 and 爾自 in the 金光明最勝王経音義 (Konkōmyō Saishōō-kyō Ongi) of 1079. May be a shift from earlier nuji or noji readings (see below).

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Alternative forms[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (にじ) (niji

    1. a rainbow
      春雨(はるさめ)がやんだ途端(とたん)に、(うつく)しい(にじ)(あらわ)れた。
      Harusame ga yanda totan ni, utsukushii niji ga arawareta.
      Just as the spring shower passed, a beautiful rainbow appeared.
    Synonyms[edit]

    Etymology 2[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    ぬじ
    Grade: S
    kun’yomi

    ⟨nuzi⟩/nuʑi/

    From Old Japanese[1], attested in the 北野本日本書紀 (Kitano-bon Nihon shoki) of the late Heian period.[3] May be a shift from earlier noji (see below); compare Okinawan ぬーじ (nuː‎dʑi) and Miyako ぬず (nudzɿ).

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (ぬじ) (nuji

    1. (dialect, possibly obsolete) a rainbow

    Etymology 3[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    のじ
    Grade: S
    kun’yomi

    ⟨no1zi⟩/noʑi/

    From Old Japanese, appeared in the Man'yōshū of 759 CE as an eastern dialectal variant.[1][3][4]

    Cognate with Okinawan ぬーじ (nuː‎dʑi) and Miyako ぬず (nudzɿ).

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (のじ) (noji

    1. (obsolete) a rainbow

    References[edit]

    1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
    2. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    3. 3.0 3.1 虹・霓(にじ)とは - コトバンク[1], accessed 2019-01-21
    4. ^ c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 14, poem 3414), text available here

    Korean[edit]

    Hanja[edit]

    (hong, gang)

    1. rainbow

    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    : Hán Việt readings: hồng[1]
    : Nôm readings: vồng[1]

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    References[edit]