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U+8679, 虹
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-8679

[U+8678]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+867A]

Translingual[edit]

Han character[edit]

(radical 142, +3, 9 strokes, cangjie input 中戈一 (LIM), four-corner 51110, composition)

Derived characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 1076, character 40
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 32830
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1545, character 23
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 4, page 2834, character 8
  • Unihan data for U+8679

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.
variant forms

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shang Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han)
Oracle bone script Small seal script
虹-oracle.svg 虹-seal.svg
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*kroːŋ, *ɡroːŋ
*kluːmʔ, *koːŋ
*kluːmʔ
*ŋr'oːŋ, *kʰroːŋ, *kʰoːŋ
*kroːŋ
*kroːŋ, *qʰroːŋ
*kroːŋ
*kroːŋ
*kroːŋ
*kroːŋ
*kroːŋ, *koːŋ, *kuːŋ
*kroːŋ
*kroːŋ, *koːŋ
*kroːŋs, *koːŋs, *ɡoːŋ
*kʰroːŋ
*kʰroːŋ, *kʰoːŋ
*kʰroːŋ
*kʰroːŋ, *kʰoːŋs
*kʰroːŋ, *kʰoːŋ
*kʰroːŋ, *kʰoːŋ, *kʰoːŋs
*kʰroːŋ, *kʰoŋ, *ɡoŋ
*qʰroːŋ
*qʰroːŋ, *qʰoːŋ
*qʰroːŋ
*ɡroːŋʔ
*ɡ·roːŋ
*koːŋ
*koːŋ
*koːŋ
*koːŋ, *qʰoːŋ, *ɡoːŋ
*koːŋ, *kuːŋ
*koːŋ
*koːŋ
*koːŋs
*koːŋs
*kʰoːŋ, *kʰoːŋs
*kʰoːŋ
*kʰoːŋ
*kʰoːŋ
*kʰoːŋ
*kʰoːŋ, *kʰoːŋʔ, *kʰoːŋs
*kʰoːŋs
*qʰoːŋ
*qʰoːŋʔ
*ɡoːŋ
*ɡoːŋ
*ɡoːŋ
*ɡoːŋ
*ɡoːŋ
*ɡoːŋ, *ɡoːŋʔ
*ɡoːŋʔ
*ɡoːŋʔ
*koŋʔ
*koŋʔ
*kʰoŋ, *qʰoŋ
*kʰoŋʔ, *kʰoŋs
*ɡoŋ
*ɡoŋ
*ɡoŋ
*ɡoŋ

Originally pictographic (象形) in the oracle bone script. The ancient Chinese regarded the rainbow as a two-headed creature.

In the seal script, it has become a phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *kroːŋs, *koːŋs, *ɡoːŋ): semantic  (insect; creature) + phonetic  (OC *koːŋ).

Etymology[edit]

Probably non-Sino-Tibetan; compare Proto-Mien *kluŋᴬ (rainbow), Thai รุ้ง (rúng, rainbow), Zhuang duzdoengz (rainbow), saidoengz (rainbow) (Schuessler, 2007).

Benedict (1986) and Carr (1990) relate this to (OC *b·roŋ, *mroːŋ, “dragon”) and (OC *ɡoːŋ, “red”).

Pronunciation[edit]


Note: jiàng, gàng - only used as a standalone word.
Note:
  • gang4 - vernacular;
  • hong2 - literary.
  • Cantonese
  • Gan
  • Note:
    • gong4 - vernacular;
    • fung4 - literary.
  • Hakka
  • Jin
  • Note:
    • jion2 - vernacular;
    • hung1 - literary.
  • Min Bei
  • Note:
    • gô̤ng - vernacular;
    • ǒng - literary.
  • Min Dong
  • Note:
    • kê̤ṳng - vernacular;
    • hùng - literary.
  • Min Nan
  • Note:
    • khēng/khěng - vernacular;
    • hông - literary.
    Note:
    • kêng6 - vernacular;
    • hong5 - literary.
  • Wu
  • Xiang
  • Note:
    • gan4 - vernacular;
    • hong2 - literary.

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/3 2/3 3/3
    Initial () (33) (28) (28)
    Final () (1) (1) (9)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø) Departing (H) Departing (H)
    Openness (開合) Open Open Open
    Division () I I II
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ɦuŋ/ /kuŋH/ /kˠʌŋH/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ɦuŋ/ /kuŋH/ /kᵚɔŋH/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ɣuŋ/ /kuŋH/ /kɔŋH/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ɦəwŋ/ /kəwŋH/ /kaɨwŋH/
    Li
    Rong
    /ɣuŋ/ /kuŋH/ /kɔŋH/
    Wang
    Li
    /ɣuŋ/ /kuŋH/ /kɔŋH/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ɣuŋ/ /kuŋH/ /kɔŋH/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    hóng gòng jiàng
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2 2/2
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    hóng jiàng
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ huwng › ‹ kæwngH ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*m-kˁoŋ/ /*kˁroŋ-s/
    English rainbow rainbow

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/3 2/3 3/3
    No. 4004 4032 4056
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0 0 0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*kroːŋs/ /*koːŋs/ /*ɡoːŋ/
    Notes

    Definitions[edit]

    1. rainbow (Classifier: m;  m)
        ―  cǎihóng  ―  rainbow
      天上  ―  Tiānshàng chū jiàng le.  ―  There's a rainbow in the sky.
    2. (literary, figuratively) bridge

    Synonyms[edit]

    Dialectal synonyms of (“rainbow”) [map]
    Variety Location Words
    Classical Chinese , 螮蝀, ,
    Formal (Written Standard Chinese) 彩虹,
    Mandarin Beijing
    Taiwan 彩虹
    Harbin
    Shenyang
    Hailar 彩虹
    Ulan Hot 七彩虹
    Tongliao 彩虹
    Chifeng
    Bayanhot 彩虹,
    Jinan
    Muping
    Luoyang
    Jiedian
    Xi'an
    Zhengzhou
    Xining
    Xuzhou
    Yinchuan
    Lanzhou
    Ürümqi
    Wuhan
    Huanggang
    Chengdu
    Guiyang
    Guilin
    Liuzhou , 彩虹
    Kunming
    Yangzhou
    Nanjing
    Hefei
    Nantong ,
    Sokuluk (Gansu Dungan)
    Masanchin (Shaanxi Dungan)
    Cantonese Guangzhou , 天虹, 龍拱
    Hong Kong 天虹, 彩虹
    Hong Kong (San Tin Weitou) 天弓
    Foshan 鑊耳龍
    Shunde 拱篷
    Zhongshan (Shiqi) 虹拱
    Doumen (Shangheng Tanka) 龍孔
    Doumen 龍孔
    Taishan 鑊耳
    Kaiping (Chikan) 鑊耳龍
    Dongguan
    Shaoguan
    Yunfu
    Yangjiang 破篷
    Xinyi 湴更
    Lianjiang
    Nanning
    Wuzhou 彩虹
    Yulin 龐虹
    Hepu 天虹
    Danzhou 天虹
    Kuala Lumpur 彩虹, 彩龍
    Ho Chi Minh City 彩虹
    Gan Nanchang
    Lichuan 天虹, 天吊
    Pingxiang
    Hakka Meixian 天弓
    Xingning 天弓
    Huidong 天弓
    Qujiang 天弓
    Xiaosanjiang
    Luchuan 天公降水
    Changting
    Pingyu 天弓
    Wuping 天弓
    Liancheng
    Ninghua
    Yudu
    Ruijin
    Shicheng
    Shangyou
    Miaoli (N. Sixian) 天弓,
    Liudui (S. Sixian) 天弓
    Hsinchu (Hailu)
    Dongshi (Dabu) 天弓
    Hsinchu (Raoping)
    Yunlin (Zhao'an)
    Hong Kong 天弓
    Senai 天弓, 彩虹
    Sabah (Longchuan) 天弓
    Singkawang 天弓
    Huizhou Jixi 日頭紅虹,
    Yixian
    Qimen
    Wuyuan
    Fuliang
    Dexing 彩虹
    Xianyu (formerly Zhanda)
    Jin Taiyuan
    Pingyao
    Xinzhou
    Baochang
    Jining
    Hohhot
    Baotou
    Dongsheng
    Linhe
    Haibowan
    Min Bei Jian'ou
    Dikou
    Zhenqian
    Shibei , 攔溪仔 dated
    Min Dong Fuzhou
    Fuqing
    Shouning
    Matsu
    Min Nan Xiamen
    Quanzhou
    Yongchun
    Zhangzhou
    Hua'an
    Dongshan
    Taipei
    Kaohsiung
    Tainan
    Taichung
    Wuqi
    Hsinchu
    Taitung
    Lukang
    Sanxia
    Yilan
    Kinmen
    Magong
    Penang
    Zhangping 天虹
    Pingnan
    Chaozhou
    Haifeng
    Johor Bahru
    Wenchang
    Haikou
    Puxian Min Putian
    Xianyou
    Pinghua Nanning
    Guilin
    Shehua Fu'an 交龍
    Fuding 交龍
    Luoyuan 交龍
    Sanming 交龍
    Shunchang 交龍
    Hua'an 交龍
    Guixi 交龍
    Cangnan 交龍
    Jingning 交龍
    Lishui 交龍
    Longyou 交龍
    Chaozhou 交龍
    Fengshun 交龍
    Wu Shanghai , 彩虹, dated
    Suzhou , 彩虹,
    Wuxi 彩虹, ,
    Hangzhou , 彩虹
    Wenzhou
    Chongming
    Danyang
    Jinhua , 彩虹
    Tangxi
    Ningbo ,
    Xiang Changsha
    Shuangfeng
    Loudi
    Quanzhou 彩虹

    Compounds[edit]


    Japanese[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (common “Jōyō” kanji)

    Readings[edit]

    Compounds[edit]

    Etymology 1[edit]

    Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
    Wikipedia ja
    English Wikipedia has an article on:
    Wikipedia
    (niji, nuji, noji): a rainbow.
    Kanji in this term
    にじ
    Grade: S
    kun’yomi

    ⟨nizi⟩/niʑi/

    From Old Japanese,[1] attested as man'yōgana form 爾之 in the 和名類聚抄 (Wamyō Ruijushō) of c.931-938 and 爾自 in the 金光明最勝王経音義 (Konkōmyō Saishōō-kyō Ongi) of 1079. May be a shift from earlier nuji or noji readings (see below).

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Alternative forms[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana にじ, rōmaji niji)

    1. a rainbow
      春雨 (はるさめ)がやんだ () (たん)に、 (うつく)しい (にじ) (あらわ)れた。
      Harusame ga yanda totan ni, utsukushii niji ga arawareta.
      Just as the spring shower passed, a beautiful rainbow appeared.
    Synonyms[edit]

    Etymology 2[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    ぬじ
    Grade: S
    kun’yomi

    ⟨nuzi⟩/nuʑi/

    From Old Japanese[1], attested in the 北野本日本書紀 (Kitano-bon Nihon shoki) of the late Heian period.[3] May be a shift from earlier noji (see below); compare Okinawan ぬーじ (nuː‎dʑi) and Miyako ぬず (nudzɿ).

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana ぬじ, rōmaji nuji)

    1. (dialectal, possibly obsolete) a rainbow

    Etymology 3[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    のじ
    Grade: S
    kun’yomi

    ⟨no1zi⟩/noʑi/

    From Old Japanese, appeared in the Man'yōshū of 759 CE as an eastern dialectal variant.[1][3][4]

    Cognate with Okinawan ぬーじ (nuː‎dʑi) and Miyako ぬず (nudzɿ).

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana のじ, rōmaji noji)

    1. (obsolete) a rainbow

    References[edit]

    1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
    2. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    3. 3.0 3.1 虹・霓(にじ)とは - コトバンク[1], accessed 2019-01-21
    4. ^ c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 14, poem 3414), text available here

    Korean[edit]

    Hanja[edit]

    (hong, gang)

    1. rainbow

    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    : Hán Việt readings: hồng[1]
    : Nôm readings: vồng[1]

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    References[edit]