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U+8679, 虹
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-8679

[U+8678]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+867A]

Translingual[edit]

Han character[edit]

A rainbow

(radical 142 +3, 9 strokes, cangjie input 中戈一 (LIM), four-corner 51110, composition)

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 1076, character 40
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 32830
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1545, character 23
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 4, page 2834, character 8
  • Unihan data for U+8679

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.
alt. forms

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Oracle bone script Small seal script
虹-oracle.svg 虹-seal.svg
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*kroːŋ, *ɡroːŋ
*kluːmʔ, *koːŋ
*kluːmʔ
*ŋr'oːŋ, *kʰroːŋ, *kʰoːŋ
*kroːŋ
*kroːŋ, *qʰroːŋ
*kroːŋ
*kroːŋ
*kroːŋ
*kroːŋ
*kroːŋ, *koːŋ, *kuːŋ
*kroːŋ
*kroːŋ, *koːŋ
*kroːŋs, *koːŋs, *ɡoːŋ
*kʰroːŋ
*kʰroːŋ, *kʰoːŋ
*kʰroːŋ
*kʰroːŋ, *kʰoːŋs
*kʰroːŋ, *kʰoːŋ
*kʰroːŋ, *kʰoːŋ, *kʰoːŋs
*kʰroːŋ, *kʰoŋ, *ɡoŋ
*qʰroːŋ
*qʰroːŋ, *qʰoːŋ
*qʰroːŋ
*ɡroːŋ
*ɡroːŋʔ
*ɡ·roːŋ
*koːŋ
*koːŋ
*koːŋ
*koːŋ, *qʰoːŋ, *ɡoːŋ
*koːŋ, *kuːŋ
*koːŋ
*koːŋ
*koːŋs
*koːŋs
*kʰoːŋ, *kʰoːŋs
*kʰoːŋ
*kʰoːŋ
*kʰoːŋ
*kʰoːŋ
*kʰoːŋ, *kʰoːŋʔ, *kʰoːŋs
*kʰoːŋs
*qʰoːŋ
*qʰoːŋʔ
*ɡoːŋ
*ɡoːŋ
*ɡoːŋ
*ɡoːŋ
*ɡoːŋ
*ɡoːŋ, *ɡoːŋʔ
*ɡoːŋʔ
*ɡoːŋʔ
*koŋʔ
*koŋʔ
*kʰoŋ, *qʰoŋ
*kʰoŋʔ, *kʰoŋs
*ɡoŋ
*ɡoŋ
*ɡoŋ
*ɡoŋ

Originally pictographic (象形) in the oracle bone script. The ancient Chinese regarded the rainbow as a two-headed creature.

In the seal script, it has become a phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *kroːŋs, *koːŋs, *ɡoːŋ): semantic  (insect; creature) + phonetic  (OC *koːŋ).

Etymology[edit]

Probably non-Sino-Tibetan; compare Proto-Mien *kluŋᴬ (rainbow), Thai รุ้ง (rúng, rainbow), Zhuang duzdoengz (rainbow), saidoengz (rainbow) (Schuessler, 2007).

Benedict (1986) and Carr (1990) relate this to (OC *b·roŋ, *mroːŋ, “dragon”) and (OC *ɡoːŋ, “red”).

Pronunciation[edit]


Note: jiàng, gàng - only used as a standalone word.
Note:
  • gang4 - vernacular;
  • hong2 - literary.
Note:
  • gong4 - vernacular;
  • fung4 - literary.
Note:
  • jion2 - vernacular;
  • hung1 - literary.
Note:
  • kê̤ṳng - vernacular;
  • hùng - literary.
Note:
  • khēng/khěng - vernacular;
  • hông - literary.
Note:
  • kêng6 - vernacular;
  • hong5 - literary.
Note:
  • gan4 - vernacular;
  • hong2 - literary.

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/3 2/3 3/3
Initial () (33) (28) (28)
Final () (1) (1) (9)
Tone (調) Level (Ø) Departing (H) Departing (H)
Openness (開合) Open Open Open
Division () I I II
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ɦuŋ/ /kuŋH/ /kˠʌŋH/
Pan
Wuyun
/ɦuŋ/ /kuŋH/ /kᵚɔŋH/
Shao
Rongfen
/ɣuŋ/ /kuŋH/ /kɔŋH/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ɦəwŋ/ /kəwŋH/ /kaɨwŋH/
Li
Rong
/ɣuŋ/ /kuŋH/ /kɔŋH/
Wang
Li
/ɣuŋ/ /kuŋH/ /kɔŋH/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ɣuŋ/ /kuŋH/ /kɔŋH/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
hóng gòng jiàng
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
hóng jiàng
Middle
Chinese
‹ huwng › ‹ kæwngH ›
Old
Chinese
/*m-kˤoŋ/ /*kˤroŋ-s/
English rainbow rainbow

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/3 2/3 3/3
No. 4004 4032 4056
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0 0 0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*kroːŋs/ /*koːŋs/ /*ɡoːŋ/
Notes

Definitions[edit]

  1. rainbow
      ―  cǎihóng  ―  rainbow
  2. (literary, figuratively) bridge

Synonyms[edit]

Dialectal synonyms of (“rainbow”) [map]
Variety Location Words
Classical Chinese 螮蝀
Formal (Written Standard Chinese) 彩虹
Mandarin Beijing
Taiwan 彩虹
Harbin
Shenyang
Jinan
Muping
Luoyang
Jiedian
Xi'an
Zhengzhou
Xining
Xuzhou
Yinchuan
Lanzhou
Ürümqi
Wuhan
Chengdu
Guiyang
Guilin
Liuzhou 彩虹
Kunming
Yangzhou
Nanjing
Hefei
Nantong
Cantonese Guangzhou 天虹龍拱
Hong Kong 天虹彩虹
Shunde 拱篷
Foshan 鑊耳龍
Zhongshan 虹拱
Dongguan
Hong Kong (Weitou) 天弓
Taishan 鑊耳
Doumen 龍孔
Kaiping 鑊耳龍
Shaoguan
Yunfu
Yangjiang 破篷
Xinyi 湴更
Lianjiang
Nanning
Wuzhou 彩虹
Yulin 龐虹
Hepu 天虹
Kuala Lumpur 彩虹彩龍
Gan Nanchang
Lichuan 天虹天吊
Pingxiang
Hakka Meixian 天弓
Xingning 天弓
Huidong 天弓
Qujiang 天弓
Xiaosanjiang
Luchuan 天公降水
Changting
Pingyu 天弓
Wuping 天弓
Liancheng
Ninghua
Yudu
Ruijin
Shicheng
Shangyou
Miaoli (N. Sixian) 天弓
Liudui (S. Sixian) 天弓
Hsinchu (Hailu)
Dongshi (Dabu) 天弓
Zhuolan (Raoping)
Yunlin (Zhao'an)
Hong Kong 天弓
Sabah 天弓
Senai 天弓彩虹
Singkawang 天弓
Huizhou Jixi 日頭紅虹
Jin Taiyuan
Xinzhou
Min Bei Jian'ou
Min Dong Fuzhou
Fuqing
Matsu
Min Nan Xiamen
Quanzhou
Zhangzhou
Taipei
Kaohsiung
Tainan
Taichung
Wuqi
Hsinchu
Taitung
Lukang
Sanxia
Yilan
Kinmen
Magong
Penang
Pingnan
Chaozhou
Haifeng
Johor Bahru
Haikou
Pinghua Nanning
Guilin
Wu Shanghai
Suzhou
Hangzhou
Wenzhou
Chongming
Danyang
Jinhua
Tangxi
Ningbo
Xiang Changsha
Shuangfeng
Loudi
Quanzhou 彩虹

Compounds[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(common “Jōyō” kanji)

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia ja
Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia
(niji, nuji, noji): a rainbow.
Kanji in this term
にじ
Grade: S
kun’yomi

From Old Japanese.[1] Shift from earlier nuji or noji reading.

Pronunciation[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Noun[edit]

(hiragana にじ, rōmaji niji)

  1. a rainbow
    春雨 (はるさめ)がやんだ () (たん)に、 (うつく)しい (にじ) (あらわ)れた。
    Harusame ga yanda totan ni, utsukushii niji ga arawareta.
    Just as the spring shower passed, a beautiful rainbow appeared.
Synonyms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Kanji in this term
ぬじ
Grade: S
kun’yomi

From Old Japanese.[1] Shift from earlier noji reading.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

(hiragana ぬじ, rōmaji nuji)

  1. (dialect, possibly obsolete) a rainbow

Etymology 3[edit]

Kanji in this term
のじ
Grade: S
kun’yomi

From Old Japanese. Appears in the Man'yōshū of 720 CE as an eastern dialectal variant.[1]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

(hiragana のじ, rōmaji noji)

  1. (obsolete) a rainbow

References[edit]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
  2. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

(hong, gang)

  1. rainbow

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(hồng, vồng, nhật)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.