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U+9F8D, 龍
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-9F8D

[U+9F8C]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+9F8E]
U+F9C4, 龍
CJK COMPATIBILITY IDEOGRAPH-F9C4

[U+F9C3]
CJK Compatibility Ideographs
[U+F9C5]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
龍-order.gif
Traditional
Shinjitai
Simplified

Han character[edit]

(radical 212 +0, 16 strokes, cangjie input 卜月卜尸心 (YBYSP), four-corner 01211)

  1. Kangxi radical #212, .

Derived characters[edit]

Descendants[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 1536, character 33
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 48818
  • Dae Jaweon: page 2076, character 1
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 7, page 4803, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+9F8D

Chinese[edit]

trad.
simp.
alt. forms

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Spring and Autumn Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Bronze inscriptions Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Bronze inscriptions Chu bamboo and silk script Qin bamboo and wooden slip script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
龍-bronze-shang.svg 龍-oracle.svg 龍-bronze.svg 龍-bronze-spring.svg 龍-silk.svg 龍-slip.svg 龍-seal.svg 龍-bigseal.svg
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*ʔslaːŋʔ, *roŋ
*broːŋ
*rroːŋ, *sroːŋ, *roːŋ
*roːŋ, *roːŋʔ, *roŋ
*roːŋ
*roːŋ, *roŋs
*roːŋ, *roːŋʔ
*roːŋ
*roːŋ, *roːŋs
*roːŋ
*roːŋ, *roŋ
*roːŋ
*roːŋ, *roːŋʔ, *r'oŋʔ
*roːŋ
*roːŋ, *roːŋʔ
*roːŋ, *roŋ
*roːŋ
*roːŋʔ
*roːŋʔ
*roːŋʔ
*roːŋʔ, *roŋs
*b·roŋ, *mroːŋ
*roŋ, *roŋs
*roŋʔ
*roŋʔ
*roŋʔ
*r̥ʰoŋʔ
*kloŋ, *kloŋs, *qroːɡ

Pictogram (象形) – originally a serpent with prominent whiskered mouth and eyes.

Current form developed in large seal script, with serpent’s body on right (tail at upper right, legs on right), whiskered/fanged mouth at lower left, and eyes/crown at upper left. Left side was subsequently simplified and abstracted, with some influence of and /. Note that existed as a traditional variant dating back to large seal script, and figures a dragon seen face-on, rather than curled around.

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *m-bru(ŋ/k) (dragon; thunder). Cognate with Tibetan འབྲུག ('brug, dragon; thunder). The STEDT database also lists (OC *ɡ·ruːŋ, “thunder; sound of thunder”) and (OC *bruːɡ, “hail”) as cognates. Also compare (OC *brɯŋs, “sound of thunder”) and 霹靂 (OC *pʰeːɡ reːɡ, “thunder”).

This word is found in many languages of the region. Compare Proto-Hmong-Mien *-roŋ (dragon) (White Hmong zaj), Proto-Vietic *-roːŋ (dragon) (Vietnamese rồng), Vietnamese thuồng luồng (serpent-like monster), Khmer រោង (roong, year of the dragon), Thai มะโรง (má-roong, dragon; year of the dragon), Lao ມະໂລງ (ma lōng, year of the dragon), perhaps also Old Turkic *-lan (suffix denoting a wild, predatory animal) (Turkish aslan (lion), kaplan (tiger), yılan (snake)).

Pronunciation[edit]


Note:
  • lêng - vernacular;
  • gêng/liâng/ngúi - vernacular (only used in 龍眼);
  • liông - literary.

  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /luŋ³⁵/
Harbin /luŋ²⁴/
Tianjin /luŋ⁴⁵/
Jinan /luŋ⁴²/
Qingdao /ləŋ⁴²/
Zhengzhou /luŋ⁴²/
/lyuŋ⁴²/
Xi'an /luŋ²⁴/
Xining /luə̃²⁴/
Yinchuan /luŋ⁵³/
Lanzhou /lũn⁵³/
Ürümqi /luŋ⁵¹/
Wuhan /noŋ²¹³/
Chengdu /noŋ³¹/
Guiyang /noŋ²¹/
Kunming /loŋ³¹/
Nanjing /loŋ²⁴/
Hefei /ləŋ⁵⁵/
Jin Taiyuan /luəŋ¹¹/
Pingyao /luŋ¹³/
Hohhot /lũŋ³¹/
Wu Shanghai /loŋ²³/
Suzhou /loŋ¹³/
Hangzhou /loŋ²¹³/
Wenzhou /liɛ³¹/
Hui Shexian /lʌ̃⁴⁴/
Tunxi /lin⁴⁴/
Xiang Changsha /loŋ¹³/
Xiangtan /nən¹²/
Gan Nanchang /luŋ⁴⁵/
Hakka Meixian /liuŋ¹¹/
Taoyuan /lioŋ¹¹/
Cantonese Guangzhou /loŋ²¹/
Nanning /luŋ²¹/
Hong Kong /luŋ²¹/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /liɔŋ³⁵/
/liŋ³⁵/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /lyŋ⁵³/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /lœyŋ³³/
Shantou (Min Nan) /loŋ⁵⁵/
/leŋ⁵⁵/
Haikou (Min Nan) /loŋ³¹/
/liaŋ³¹/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (37)
Final () (7)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/lɨoŋ/
Pan
Wuyun
/lioŋ/
Shao
Rongfen
/lioŋ/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/luawŋ/
Li
Rong
/lioŋ/
Wang
Li
/lĭwoŋ/
Bernard
Karlgren
/li̯woŋ/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
lóng
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2
No. 8436 8763
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0 0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*b·roŋ/ /*mroːŋ/
Notes

Definitions[edit]

  1. (mythology) Chinese dragon
  2. (mythology) Western dragon
  3. (figuratively) emperor; sovereign; king; of the emperor
  4. (figuratively) chief; hero; towering figure
  5. (by extension) dragon-shaped object; long object
  6. (by extension) dragon-adorned object
  7. (zoology) Short for 恐龍恐龙 (kǒnglóng, “dinosaur”).
  8. (Min Dong) to become clear-minded; to be revitalised
  9. A surname​.

Compounds[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Shinjitai

Kyūjitai

Kanji[edit]

(“Jinmeiyō” kanji used for nameskyūjitai kanji, shinjitai form )

  1. dragon

Readings[edit]

Usage notes[edit]

  • Kyūjitai; simplified into as isolated shinjitai kanji, but used in Jōyō characters and (latter Jōyō as of 2010).
    • Although it is officially simplified into , 龍 is often used instead for certain words for its aesthetics (such as in literary contexts or for spelling words borrowed from Chinese).

Noun[edit]

(kyūjitai kanji, shinjitai kanji , hiragana たつ, rōmaji tatsu)

  1. dragon
    • 931938, Wamyō Ruijushō, book 8, page 1:
      文字集畧云、龍、力鍾反、太都、○下總本有和名二字、神代紀齋明紀同訓、按太都 [...]

(kyūjitai kanji, shinjitai kanji , hiragana りゅう, rōmaji ryū)

  1. dragon

Proper noun[edit]

(kyūjitai kanji, shinjitai kanji , hiragana りゅう, rōmaji Ryū)

  1. A male given name
  2. A surname​.

References[edit]


Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

(ryong>yong, rong>nong, mang, chong)

  • Eumhun:
    • Sound (hangeul): >, >, , (McCune-Reischauer: ryong>yong, rong>nong, mang, ch'ong, Yale: lyong>yong, long>nong, mang, chong)
    • Name (hangeul):
  1. dragon
  2. king

compounds[edit]


Pai-lang[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Coblin, reconstructing the Pai-lang pronunciation as *gljung, suggests that it derives from Proto-Sino-Tibetan *kl(j)u(ŋ/k) (river, gorge) and retains its consonant cluster, which was lost in Proto-Lolo-Burmese. Compare Tibetan ལྗོངས (ljongs), Chinese (OC *kloːɡ).

Noun[edit]

(*gljung)

  1. gorge

External sources[edit]

  • W. South Coblin, "A New Study of the Pai-lang Songs" (1979), Tsing Hua Journal of Chinese Studies, 12:179–216
  • Christopher I. Beckwith, "The Pai-lang songs: The earliest texts in a Tibeto-Burman language and their Late Old Chinese transcriptions" (2008), in Medieval Tibeto-Burman Languages III

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(long, lỏng, lung, lúng, luồng)

  1. dragon