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See also: and
U+51FA, 出
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-51FA

[U+51F9]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+51FB]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
5 strokes
Stroke order
出-order.gif

Han character[edit]

(Kangxi radical 17, +3, 5 strokes, cangjie input 山山 (UU), four-corner 22772, composition or ⿻)

Derived characters[edit]

Related characters[edit]

  • (U+5C80, Unorthodox variant)

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 135, character 11
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 1811
  • Dae Jaweon: page 301, character 7
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 1, page 307, character 8
  • Unihan data for U+51FA

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Chu slip and silk script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
出-oracle.svg 出-bronze.svg 出-silk.svg 出-seal.svg 出-bigseal.svg

Ideogrammic compound (會意): (foot) + (cave) – to step out of a cave; to exit. Compare .

By the Qin dynasty, the character has lost its original shape. Based on the distorted form, Shuowen mistakenly interprets the character as a pictogram (象形) of a plant growing outwards.

Etymology 1[edit]

The Chinese term may be tentatively comparable to Burmese ထွက် (htwak, to go or come out; to produce or yield; to leave), from Proto-Sino-Tibetan *s-twak (to come or go out; to emerge); the -t final may be particular to Chinese. This term may have been conflated with a descendant from Proto-Sino-Tibetan *m-(t/d)u (nephew; descendant) – whence the Burmese တူ (tu, nephew) – a sense no longer productive but was mentioned in the glossary book Erya, c. 2nd century BCE. (STEDT)

Pronunciation[edit]


Note:
  • cug4 - literary;
  • cuh4 - vernacular (dialectal).
  • Wu
  • Xiang

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /ʈ͡ʂʰu⁵⁵/
    Harbin /ʈ͡ʂʰu⁴⁴/
    /ʈ͡ʂʰu²⁴/ ~去
    Tianjin /ʈ͡ʂʰu²¹/
    /t͡sʰu²¹/
    Jinan /ʈ͡ʂʰu²¹³/
    Qingdao /tʃʰu⁵⁵/
    Zhengzhou /ʈ͡ʂʰu²⁴/
    Xi'an /p͡fʰu²¹/
    Xining /ʈ͡ʂʰv̩⁴⁴/
    Yinchuan /ʈ͡ʂʰu¹³/
    Lanzhou /p͡fʰu¹³/
    Ürümqi /ʈ͡ʂʰu²¹³/
    Wuhan /t͡ɕʰy²¹³/
    Chengdu /t͡sʰu³¹/
    Guiyang /t͡sʰu²¹/
    Kunming /ʈ͡ʂʰu³¹/
    Nanjing /ʈ͡ʂʰuʔ⁵/
    Hefei /ʈ͡ʂʰuəʔ⁵/
    Jin Taiyuan /t͡sʰuəʔ²/
    Pingyao /t͡sʰuʌʔ¹³/
    Hohhot /t͡sʰuəʔ⁴³/
    Wu Shanghai /t͡sʰəʔ⁵/
    Suzhou /t͡sʰəʔ⁵/
    Hangzhou /t͡sʰəʔ⁵/
    /t͡sʰz̩ʷəʔ⁵/
    Wenzhou /t͡ɕʰy²¹³/
    Hui Shexian /t͡ɕʰyʔ²¹/
    Tunxi /t͡sʰə⁵/
    Xiang Changsha /t͡ɕʰy²⁴/
    Xiangtan /t͡ɕʰy²⁴/
    Gan Nanchang /t͡sʰɨʔ⁵/
    Hakka Meixian /t͡sʰut̚¹/
    Taoyuan /tʃʰut̚²²/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /t͡sʰøt̚⁵/
    Nanning /t͡sʰyt̚⁵⁵/
    Hong Kong /t͡sʰøt̚⁵/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /t͡sʰut̚³²/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /t͡sʰouʔ²³/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /t͡sʰy²⁴/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /t͡sʰuk̚²/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /sut̚⁵/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/2 2/2
    Initial () (24) (24)
    Final () (16) (52)
    Tone (調) Departing (H) Checked (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Closed Closed
    Division () III III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /t͡ɕʰiuɪH/ /t͡ɕʰiuɪt̚/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /t͡ɕʰʷiH/ /t͡ɕʰʷit̚/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /t͡ɕʰjuɪH/ /t͡ɕʰjuet̚/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /cʰwiH/ /cʰwit̚/
    Li
    Rong
    /t͡ɕʰuiH/ /t͡ɕʰiuĕt̚/
    Wang
    Li
    /t͡ɕʰwiH/ /t͡ɕʰĭuĕt̚/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /t͡ɕʰwiH/ /t͡ɕʰi̯uĕt̚/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    chuì chu
    Expected
    Cantonese
    Reflex
    ceoi3 ceot1
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2 2/2
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    chū chuì
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ tsyhwit › ‹ tsyhwijH ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*t-kʰut/ /*t-kʰut-s/
    English go or come out bring or take out

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2 2/2
    No. 1545 1578
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    3 2
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*kʰljuds/ /*kʰljud/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. to go out; to leave; to exit
      Antonym: ()
      /   ―  chūlái  ―  to come out
      /   ―  chūguó  ―  to leave one's country
    2. to appear
      水落石  ―  shuǐluòshíchū  ―  the truth is revealed (literally, “the water recedes and the rocks appear”)
      論語· / 论语·  ―  chū “Lùnyǔ Yōngyě”  ―  It is from Yong Ye of the Analects.
    3. to come; to arrive
        ―  chū  ―  to attend
    4. to send out; to put forth
      題目 / 题目  ―  chū tímù  ―  to set questions
      /   ―  chūqián, wǒ chūlì.  ―  You contribute money and I contribute my strength.
      主意 [MSC, trad.]
      主意 [MSC, simp.]
      Wǒ gěi tā chū le ge hǎo zhǔyì. [Pinyin]
      I came up with a good idea for him.
    5. to exceed
        ―  Qiú chūjiè le.  ―  The ball went out-of-bounds.
        ―  chū yī nián  ―  within one year
    6. to produce; to turn out
        ―  chū méi  ―  to produce coal
      他們學校高考狀元 [MSC, trad.]
      他们学校高考状元 [MSC, simp.]
      Tāmen xuéxiào chū le ge gāokǎo zhuàngyuán. [Pinyin]
      Their school produced a gaokao top scorer.
    7. to happen; to arise
      問題 / 问题  ―  chū wèntí  ―  to have a problem
      大事  ―  Chū dàshì le!  ―  Something big happened!
    8. to vent
        ―  chū  ―  to sprout
        ―  chūhàn  ―  to sweat
      水痘  ―  chū shuǐdòu  ―  to have chickenpox
    9. (ergative) to publish; to be released (e.g. a product, film, or announcement)
      出版社 [MSC, trad.]
      出版社 [MSC, simp.]
      Zhè běn shū shì nǎ jiā chūbǎnshè chū de? [Pinyin]
      Which publisher published this book?
      Windows 10已經 [Cantonese, trad.]
      Windows 10已经 [Cantonese, simp.]
      Windows 10 ji5 ging1 ceot1 zo2 jat1 nin4 [Jyutping]
      Windows 10 has already been out for a year
    10. to expend
      量入為 / 量入为  ―  liàngrùwéichū  ―  to budget one’s expenses according to one’s income
    11. Particle placed after verbs to indicate an outward movement.
      身份證 / 身份证  ―  chū nǐ de shēnfènzhèng  ―  take out your ID card
      香港  ―  zǒuchū Xiānggǎng  ―  to come out of Hong Kong
    12. Particle placed after verbs to indicate a completed action. to determine
      辦法 / 办法  ―  xiǎng bù chū bànfǎ  ―  cannot come up with solutions
      分別問題 [Cantonese, trad.]
      分别问题 [Cantonese, simp.]
      tai2 m4 ceot1 jau5 me1 fan1 bit6 (man6 tai4) [Jyutping]
      don't see any difference (problem)
      味道 [Cantonese, trad. and simp.]
      sik6 m4 ceot1 me1 mei6 dou3 [Jyutping]
      doesn't have any flavor

    Compounds[edit]

    Etymology 2[edit]

    For pronunciation and definitions of – see (“act; stanza; time, occasion; etc.”).
    (This character, , is the simplified and variant traditional form of .)
    Notes:

    Japanese[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (grade 1 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    Readings[edit]

    Compounds[edit]

    Etymology 1[edit]

    Kanji in this term

    Grade: 1
    kun’yomi

    The (れん)(よう)(けい) (ren'yōkei, stem or continuative form) of the verb () (deru, to come out).

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    () (de

    1. the process of something coming out
    2. something that comes out

    Derived terms[edit]

    Terms derived from () (de)

    Etymology 2[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    しゅつ
    Grade: 1
    on’yomi

    From Middle Chinese (MC t͡ɕʰiuɪt̚, “to go or come out”).

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (しゅつ) (shutsu

    1. being from a certain place
    2. coming out

    Derived terms[edit]

    Terms derived from (しゅつ) (shutsu)

    Etymology 3[edit]

    Kanji in this term

    Grade: 1
    kun’yomi

    Contraction of verb 出ず (izu, to go or come out, obsolete)

    Verb[edit]

    () (zu (du)? nidan

    1. (obsolete) to go or come out

    Usage notes[edit]

    The 出る (deru) form is now the standard term for this in modern Japanese.

    References[edit]

    1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    2. 2.0 2.1 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN

    Korean[edit]

    Etymology[edit]

    From Middle Chinese (MC t͡ɕʰiuɪt̚).

    Historical readings

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Hanja[edit]

    Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

    Wikisource

    (eumhun (nal chul))

    1. Hanja form? of (to come out; to go out).

    Compounds[edit]

    References[edit]

    • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [1]

    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    : Hán Nôm readings: xuất, xúy/xuý

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.