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U+51FA, 出
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-51FA

[U+51F9]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+51FB]

Translingual

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Stroke order
5 strokes
Stroke order

Han character

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(Kangxi radical 17, +3, 5 strokes, cangjie input 山山 (UU), four-corner 22772, composition or )

Derived characters

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  • (U+5C80, Unorthodox variant)

References

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  • Kangxi Dictionary: page 135, character 11
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 1811
  • Dae Jaweon: page 301, character 7
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 1, page 307, character 8
  • Unihan data for U+51FA

Chinese

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simp. and trad.

Glyph origin

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Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Chu slip and silk script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts

Ideogrammic compound (會意会意) : (foot) + (cave) – to step out of a cave; to exit. Compare .

By the Qin dynasty, the character has lost its original shape. Based on the distorted form, Shuowen mistakenly interprets the character as a pictogram (象形) of a plant growing outwards.

Etymology 1

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STEDT derives this word from Proto-Sino-Tibetan *s-twak (to come or go out; to emerge); compare Burmese ထွက် (htwak, to go or come out; to produce or yield; to leave), Proto-Lolo-Burmese *ʔ-twakᴴ (to come or got out; to emerge), Proto-Kuki-Chin *tshuak-I, *tshuaʔ-II (to come out; to emerge; to appear). The -t final may be particular to Chinese.

Alternatively, Sagart (1999) and Baxter and Sagart (2014) suggest that this word is related to other words that express extraction, such as (OC *[ɡ]ut, “to dig out”), and reconstruct the Old Chinese with an intransitivizing prefix *t-.

Pronunciation

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Note: cyut1 - variant.
Note:
  • cug4 - literary;
  • cuh4 - vernacular (dialectal).

  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /ʈ͡ʂʰu⁵⁵/
Harbin /ʈ͡ʂʰu⁴⁴/
/ʈ͡ʂʰu²⁴/ ~去
Tianjin /ʈ͡ʂʰu²¹/
/t͡sʰu²¹/
Jinan /ʈ͡ʂʰu²¹³/
Qingdao /tʃʰu⁵⁵/
Zhengzhou /ʈ͡ʂʰu²⁴/
Xi'an /p͡fʰu²¹/
Xining /ʈ͡ʂʰv̩⁴⁴/
Yinchuan /ʈ͡ʂʰu¹³/
Lanzhou /p͡fʰu¹³/
Ürümqi /ʈ͡ʂʰu²¹³/
Wuhan /t͡ɕʰy²¹³/
Chengdu /t͡sʰu³¹/
Guiyang /t͡sʰu²¹/
Kunming /ʈ͡ʂʰu³¹/
Nanjing /ʈ͡ʂʰuʔ⁵/
Hefei /ʈ͡ʂʰuəʔ⁵/
Jin Taiyuan /t͡sʰuəʔ²/
Pingyao /t͡sʰuʌʔ¹³/
Hohhot /t͡sʰuəʔ⁴³/
Wu Shanghai /t͡sʰəʔ⁵/
Suzhou /t͡sʰəʔ⁵/
Hangzhou /t͡sʰəʔ⁵/
/t͡sʰz̩ʷəʔ⁵/
Wenzhou /t͡ɕʰy²¹³/
Hui Shexian /t͡ɕʰyʔ²¹/
Tunxi /t͡sʰə⁵/
Xiang Changsha /t͡ɕʰy²⁴/
Xiangtan /t͡ɕʰy²⁴/
Gan Nanchang /t͡sʰɨʔ⁵/
Hakka Meixian /t͡sʰut̚¹/
Taoyuan /tʃʰut̚²²/
Cantonese Guangzhou /t͡sʰøt̚⁵/
Nanning /t͡sʰyt̚⁵⁵/
Hong Kong /t͡sʰøt̚⁵/
Min Xiamen (Hokkien) /t͡sʰut̚³²/
Fuzhou (Eastern Min) /t͡sʰouʔ²³/
Jian'ou (Northern Min) /t͡sʰy²⁴/
Shantou (Teochew) /t͡sʰuk̚²/
Haikou (Hainanese) /sut̚⁵/

Rime
Character
Reading # 2/2 1/2
Initial () (24) (24)
Final () (52) (16)
Tone (調) Checked (Ø) Departing (H)
Openness (開合) Closed Closed
Division () III III
Fanqie
Baxter tsyhwit tsyhwijH
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/t͡ɕʰiuɪt̚/ /t͡ɕʰiuɪH/
Pan
Wuyun
/t͡ɕʰʷit̚/ /t͡ɕʰʷiH/
Shao
Rongfen
/t͡ɕʰjuet̚/ /t͡ɕʰjuɪH/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/cʰwit̚/ /cʰwiH/
Li
Rong
/t͡ɕʰiuĕt̚/ /t͡ɕʰuiH/
Wang
Li
/t͡ɕʰĭuĕt̚/ /t͡ɕʰwiH/
Bernard
Karlgren
/t͡ɕʰi̯uĕt̚/ /t͡ɕʰwiH/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
chu chuì
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
ceot1 ceoi3
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
chū chuì
Middle
Chinese
‹ tsyhwit › ‹ tsyhwijH ›
Old
Chinese
/*t-kʰut/ /*t-kʰut-s/
English go or come out bring or take out

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 2/2 1/2
No. 1578 1545
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
2 3
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*kʰljud/ /*kʰljuds/

Definitions

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  1. to go out; to leave; to exit
    Antonym: ()
      ―  chūlái  ―  to come out
      ―  chūguó  ―  to leave one's country
    [Hokkien]  ―  chhut-sn̂g [Pe̍h-ōe-jī]  ―  to come out of the steamer
    門口 [Cantonese, trad.]
    门口 [Cantonese, simp.]
    nei5 ceot1 zo2 mun4 hau2 mei6 aa3? [Jyutping]
    Have you left home yet?
  2. to appear
    水落石  ―  shuǐluòshíchū  ―  the truth is revealed (literally, “the water recedes and the rocks appear”)
    論語· [MSC, trad.]
    论语· [MSC, simp.]
    chū “Lùnyǔ Yōngyě” [Pinyin]
    It is from Yong Ye of the Analects.
  3. to come; to arrive
      ―  chū  ―  to attend
      ―  chūchǎng  ―  to enter the stage
  4. (Cantonese) to go (to a certain place)
    [Cantonese]  ―  ceot1 gaai1 [Jyutping]  ―  to go out
    市區市区 [Cantonese]  ―  ceot1 si5 keoi1 [Jyutping]  ―  to go downtown
    call的士機場 [Hong Kong Cantonese, trad.]
    call的士机场 [Hong Kong Cantonese, simp.]
    bong1 ngo5 ko1 gaa3 dik1 si6-2 aa1, ngo5 jiu3 ceot1 gei1 coeng4. [Jyutping]
    (please add an English translation of this usage example)
  5. (Cantonese) out; outside
    Antonym: (jap6) (Cantonese)
    便 [Cantonese]  ―  ceot1 bin6 [Jyutping]  ―  outside
    因住 [Cantonese, trad.]
    因住 [Cantonese, simp.]
    nei5 kei5 dou3 gam3 ceot1, jan1 zyu6 bei2 ce1 zong6 aa3. [Jyutping]
    (please add an English translation of this usage example)
  6. to send out; to put forth
    題目题目  ―  chū tímù  ―  to set questions
    [MSC, trad.]
    [MSC, simp.]
    chūqián, wǒ chūlì. [Pinyin]
    You contribute money and I contribute my strength.
    主意 [MSC, trad.]
    主意 [MSC, simp.]
    Wǒ gěi tā chū le ge hǎo zhǔyì. [Pinyin]
    I came up with a good idea for him.
  7. to exceed
      ―  Qiú chūjiè le.  ―  The ball went out-of-bounds.
      ―  chū yī nián  ―  within one year
    二十 [Hokkien, trad. and simp.]
    I lī-cha̍p chhut. [Pe̍h-ōe-jī]
    He's a bit over twenty.
  8. to produce; to turn out
      ―  chū méi  ―  to produce coal
    他們學校高考狀元 [MSC, trad.]
    他们学校高考状元 [MSC, simp.]
    Tāmen xuéxiào chū le ge gāokǎo zhuàngyuán. [Pinyin]
    Their school produced a gaokao top scorer.
  9. to happen; to arise
    問題问题  ―  chū wèntí  ―  to have a problem
    大事  ―  Chū dàshì le!  ―  Something big happened!
    代誌代志 [Hokkien]  ―  chhut tāi-chì [Pe̍h-ōe-jī]  ―  to have an issue
  10. to vent; to put forth
      ―  chū  ―  to sprout
      ―  chūhàn  ―  to sweat
    水痘  ―  chūshuǐdòu  ―  to have chickenpox
    [Hokkien]  ―  chhut-chu [Pe̍h-ōe-jī]  ―  to have smallpox
    不少花蕾 [MSC, trad.]
    不少花蕾 [MSC, simp.]
    Shù shàng chū le bùshǎo huālěi. [Pinyin]
    The tree put forth many buds.
  11. (ergative) to publish; to be released (e.g. a product, film, or announcement)
    出版社 [MSC, trad.]
    出版社 [MSC, simp.]
    Zhè běn shū shì nǎ jiā chūbǎnshè chū de? [Pinyin]
    Which publisher published this book?
    Windows 10已經 [Cantonese, trad.]
    Windows 10已经 [Cantonese, simp.]
    Windows 10 ji5 ging1 ceot1 zo2 jat1 nin4 [Jyutping]
    Windows 10 has already been out for a year
  12. to expend
    量入為量入为  ―  liàngrùwéichū  ―  to budget one’s expenses according to one’s income
  13. (Hong Kong Cantonese) to buy (an electronic device, such as a mobile phone or computer) (clarification of this definition is needed)
    電話 [Cantonese, trad.]
    电话 [Cantonese, simp.]
    ceot1 bou6 din6 waa6-2 bei2 keoi5 jung6 [Jyutping]
    to buy a mobile phone for him to use
  14. Particle placed after verbs to indicate an outward movement.
    身份證身份证  ―  chū nǐ de shēnfènzhèng  ―  take out your ID card
    香港  ―  zǒuchū Xiānggǎng  ―  to come out of Hong Kong
  15. Particle placed after verbs to indicate a completed action. to determine
    辦法办法  ―  xiǎng bù chū bànfǎ  ―  cannot come up with solutions
    分別問題 [Cantonese, trad.]
    分别问题 [Cantonese, simp.]
    tai2 m4 ceot1 jau5 me1 fan1 bit6 (man6 tai4) [Jyutping]
    don't see any difference (problem)
    味道 [Cantonese, trad. and simp.]
    sik6 m4 ceot1 me1 mei6 dou6 [Jyutping]
    doesn't have any flavor
  16. (Mainland China Hokkien) to state a price
    偌濟 [Hokkien, trad.]
    偌济 [Hokkien, simp.]
    Chit tè toh i chhut lōa-chōe chîⁿ? [Pe̍h-ōe-jī]
    What price did he give for this table?
    開價 [Hokkien, trad.]
    开价 [Hokkien, simp.]
    I khui-kè, lí iā tio̍h kah i chhut. [Pe̍h-ōe-jī]
    He gave a price, you should haggle a price with him.
  17. (Mainland China Hokkien) to seem to give a large amount
    𠢕 [Hokkien, trad.]
    𠢕 [Hokkien, simp.]
    Chit hō bí gâu chhut pn̄g. [Pe̍h-ōe-jī]
    This kind of uncooked rice seems to give a large amount of cooked rice.
  18. (Mainland China Hokkien) to be willing to part with money (by spending, paying, etc.)
    𣍐 [Hokkien, trad.]
    𫧃 [Hokkien, simp.]
    Chîⁿ góa bōe chhut leh khai. [Pe̍h-ōe-jī]
    I'm not willing to spend the money.
  19. (Mainland China Hokkien) to escape one's bad luck
    [Hokkien]  ―  chhut-ūn [Pe̍h-ōe-jī]  ―  to have good luck
  20. (Xiamen and Zhangzhou Hokkien) ever since
    目睭頭一擺拄著 [Hokkien, trad.]
    目睭头一摆拄著 [Hokkien, simp.]
    Chhut ba̍k-chiu thâu-chi̍t-pái tú-tio̍h chit khoán lâng. [Pe̍h-ōe-jī]
    This is the first time I've seen someone like this since I had eyes to see.

Compounds

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Etymology 2

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For pronunciation and definitions of – see (“act; stanza; time, occasion; etc.”).
(This character is the simplified and variant traditional form of ).
Notes:

Japanese

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Kanji

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(First grade kyōiku kanji)

Readings

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Compounds

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Etymology 1

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Kanji in this term
しゅつ
Grade: 1
kan'on

From Middle Chinese (MC tsyhwit).

Pronunciation

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Noun

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(しゅつ) (shutsu

  1. being from a certain place
  2. a coming out, exiting

Affix

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(しゅつ) (shutsu

  1. come out, exit
  2. appear, emerge
  3. become visible, materialize
  4. be born
  5. excel, surpass
  6. attend, present
Derived terms
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Etymology 2

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Kanji in this term
すい
Grade: 1
on'yomi

From Middle Chinese (MC tsyhwijH).

Affix

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(すい) (sui

  1. going out
  2. putting out, showing
Derived terms
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Etymology 3

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Kanji in this term

Grade: 1
kun'yomi

The 連用形 (ren’yōkei, stem or continuative form) of verb 出る (deru, to come out).

Pronunciation

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Noun

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() (de

  1. the process of something coming out
  2. something that comes out

Derived terms

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Etymology 4

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Kanji in this term

Grade: 1
kun'yomi

Contraction of classical verb 出づ (izu), omitting the initial i-.

Verb

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() (zu (du)?nidan

  1. (obsolete) to go or come out
  2. (obsolete) to appear
Usage notes
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The 出る (deru) form is now the standard term for this in modern Japanese.

Conjugation
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References

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  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Matsumura, Akira, editor (2006), 大辞林 [Daijirin] (in Japanese), Third edition, Tokyo: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  2. 2.0 2.1 NHK Broadcasting Culture Research Institute, editor (1998), NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 [NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary] (in Japanese), Tokyo: NHK Publishing, Inc., →ISBN

Korean

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Etymology 1

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From Middle Chinese (MC tsyhwit).

Historical Readings
Dongguk Jeongun Reading
Dongguk Jeongun, 1448 츄ᇙ〮 (Yale: chyúlq)
Middle Korean
Text Eumhun
Gloss (hun) Reading
Gwangju Cheonjamun, 1575 (Yale: nal) (Yale: chyul)
Sinjeung Yuhap, 1576 (Yale: nal) (Yale: chyul)
Seokbong Cheonjamun, 1583 (Yale: nal) (Yale: chyul)

Pronunciation

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Hanja

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Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

Wikisource

(eumhun (nal chul))

  1. Hanja form? of (to come out; to go out).
Compounds
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Etymology 2

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From Middle Chinese /. (Can this(+) etymology be sourced?)

Pronunciation

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Hanja

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Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

Wikisource

(eumhun 단락 (dallak cheok))

  1. Alternative form of (Hanja form? of (act, scene, as of a play or movie).)

References

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  • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [1]

Old Japanese

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Etymology

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Contraction of verb 出づ (idu), omitting the initial i-.

Verb

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(du) (kana )

  1. to appear
Quotations
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Derived terms
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Vietnamese

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Han character

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: Hán Nôm readings: xuất, xúy/xuý

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.