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Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
凹-bw.png
Japanese stroke order
凹-jbw.png

Han character[edit]

(radical 17 +3, 5 strokes, cangjie input 尸尸山 (SSU), four-corner 77770)

  1. concave, hollow, depressed
  2. a pass, valley

Antonyms[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 135, character 10
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 1810
  • Dae Jaweon: page 301, character 6
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 308, character 3
  • Unihan data for U+51F9

Chinese[edit]

-
simp. and trad.

Pronunciation[edit]


Middle Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Character (凹), Pronunciation 1/1

Initial: 影 (34)
Final: 洽
Division: II

Openness: Open
Tone: Checked (Ø)

Fanqie: 烏洽切
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Bernard
Karlgren
Li
Rong
Pan
Wuyun
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Wang
Li
Shao
Rongfen
/ʔɣɛp̚/ /ʔăp̚/ /ʔɐp̚/ /ʔɯæp̚/ /ʔəɨp̚/ /ɐp̚/ /ʔɐp̚/
Old Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character No. Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
Corresponding
MC rime
Old Chinese Notes
36 3 /*qriːw/
37 3 𨂁 /*qriːb/

Adjective[edit]

  1. (Advanced Mandarin) concave; hollow

Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(common “Jōyō” kanji)

Readings[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Sinitic. Date of borrowing unknown. Compare modern Mandarin ‎(āo, wā).

Pronunciation[edit]

Affix[edit]

‎(hiragana おう, romaji ō, historical hiragana あふ)

  1. concave
Usage notes[edit]

The character with the reading ō is only used in compounds, and never in isolation.

Compounds[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Unknown. Sound similarities might suggest a connection to words related to darkness or deep interior, such as ‎(kumo, cloud), 蜘蛛 ‎(kumo, spider), ‎(kuma, a recess, a deep interior corner), ‎(kuro, black), ‎(kura, darkness); more at . Alternately, these broad similarities might be pure coincidence.

Pronunciation[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana くぼ, romaji kubo)

  1. an area with sides higher than the center: an indentation, a depression, a dip, a divot, a hole
  2. (slang) female genitalia, the vagina
Derived terms[edit]
Synonyms[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

Noun stem of verb 凹む ‎(kubomu, to become hollow, to become sunken, to become indented), itself a compound of ‎(kubo, an indentation, a dip) +‎ ‎(mu, to become like something, auxiliary verb attaching to nouns or adjective stems, cognate with びる biru).[2]

Pronunciation[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana くぼみ, romaji kubomi)

  1. a pit, a hollow, a cavity, a depression, a dent
Derived terms[edit]
Usage notes[edit]

The 凹み or 窪み spelling with the okurigana is more common when used as a standalone term. The spelling without the okurigana is more common in compounds.

Etymology 4[edit]

Compound of ‎(naka, inside, inner) +‎ ‎(kubo, pit, indentation).[2][3][4]

Pronunciation[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana なかくぼ, romaji nakakubo)

  1. a sunken center
  2. a place or object with a sunken center
Usage notes[edit]

The 中窪 spelling is more common.

Synonyms[edit]

Etymology 5[edit]

Noun stem of verb 凹む ‎(hekomu, to become hollow, to become sunken, to become indented), itself an abbreviated compound of 減り ‎(heri, noun stem of verb 減る heru, “to reduce, to decrease, to diminish”) +‎ 込む ‎(komu, to go inwardly).[2]

Pronunciation[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana へこみ, romaji hekomi)

  1. a pit, a hollow, a cavity, a depression, a dent
  2. a mistake, and error
  3. a moment of weakness or confusion, being at a loss
Usage notes[edit]

The 凹み spelling is more common.

Synonyms[edit]

Etymology 6[edit]

Uncertain. Possibly onomatopoeic from the sound of a wheel bouncing in a rut or pothole, or from the sound of something hollow when tapped. Compare adverb ぼこぼこ ‎(bokoboko, full of holes; hollowly).

Alternately, may be compound of ‎(bo, empty?, uncertain; possibly related to verb 掘る horu, “to dig, to dig out”) +‎ ‎(ko, place, suffixing element seen in other words such as そこ soko, “there” or 端っこ hashikko, “edge, end, tip”). Compare ‎(deko, protrusion), likely a compound of ‎(de, coming out) + ‎(ko, place, suffixing element).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana ぼこ, romaji boko)

  1. an indentation, a dip or divot, a hollow, a dent in a surface
Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, ISBN 978-4-14-011112-3
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
  3. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9
  4. ^ 1995, 大辞泉 (Daijisen) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan, ISBN 4-09-501211-0

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

‎(yo)
Eumhun:

  • Sound (hangeul):  (revised: yo, McCune-Reischauer: yo)
  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(ao)

  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.