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U+51F9, 凹
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-51F9

[U+51F8]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+51FA]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
5 strokes
Stroke order (Japan)
5 strokes

Han character[edit]

(radical 17, +3, 5 strokes, cangjie input 尸尸山 (SSU), four-corner 77770)

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 135, character 10
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 1810
  • Dae Jaweon: page 301, character 6
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 1, page 308, character 3
  • Unihan data for U+51F9

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.

Glyph origin[edit]

Pictogram (象形).

Etymology[edit]

EB1911 - Volume 01 - Page 001 - 1.svg This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.
Particularly: “Related to (ào) or (āo)?”

Pronunciation 1[edit]


Note: nap1 - semantic (訓讀).
Note:
  • au - literary;
  • lap - literary (俗);
  • nah - vernacular (俗).

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (34)
Final () (152)
Tone (調) Checked (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () II
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ʔˠɛp̚/
Pan
Wuyun
/ʔᵚæp̚/
Shao
Rongfen
/ʔɐp̚/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ʔəɨp̚/
Li
Rong
/ʔɐp̚/
Wang
Li
/ɐp̚/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ʔăp̚/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
ya
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2
No. 36 37
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
3 3
Corresponding
MC rime
𨂁
Old
Chinese
/*qriːw/ /*qriːb/

Definitions[edit]

  1. concave; hollow
Antonyms[edit]
  • (, “convex”)

Compounds[edit]

Pronunciation 2[edit]

Definitions[edit]

  1. (dialect) Same as ().

Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(common “Jōyō” kanji)

Readings[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Kanji in this term
おう
Grade: S
on’yomi

/apu//afu//au//ɔː//oː/

From Middle Chinese (MC ʔˠɛp̚). Compare modern Mandarin reading āo, Min Nan au.

Pronunciation[edit]

Affix[edit]

(おう) (ō (historical kana あふ)

  1. concave
Usage notes[edit]

The character with the reading ō is only used in compounds, and never in isolation.

Compounds[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Kanji in this term
くぼ
Grade: S
kun’yomi

Unknown. Sound similarities might suggest a connection to words related to darkness or deep interior, such as (kumo, cloud), 蜘蛛 (kumo, spider), (kuma, a recess, a deep interior corner), (kuro, black), (kura, darkness); more at . Alternately, these broad similarities might be pure coincidence.

Pronunciation[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Noun[edit]

(くぼ) (kubo

  1. an area with sides higher than the center: an indentation, a depression, a dip, a divot, a hole
  2. (slang) female genitalia, the vagina
Derived terms[edit]
Synonyms[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

Kanji in this term
くぼみ
Grade: S
kun’yomi

Noun stem of verb 凹む (kubomu, to become hollow, to become sunken, to become indented), itself a compound of (kubo, an indentation, a dip) +‎ (mu, to become like something, auxiliary verb attaching to nouns or adjective stems, cognate with びる (biru) biru).[3]

Pronunciation[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Noun[edit]

(くぼみ) (kubomi

  1. a pit, a hollow, a cavity, a depression, a dent
Derived terms[edit]
Usage notes[edit]

The (くぼ) or (くぼ) spelling with the okurigana is more common when used as a standalone term. The spelling without the okurigana is more common in compounds.

Etymology 4[edit]

Kanji in this term
なかくぼ
Grade: S
kun’yomi

Compound of (naka, inside, inner) +‎ (kubo, pit, indentation).[3][1][4]

Pronunciation[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Noun[edit]

(なかくぼ) (nakakubo

  1. a sunken center
  2. a place or object with a sunken center
Usage notes[edit]

The (なか)(くぼ) spelling is more common.

Synonyms[edit]

Etymology 5[edit]

Kanji in this term
へこみ
Grade: S
kun’yomi

Noun stem of verb 凹む (hekomu, to become hollow, to become sunken, to become indented), itself an abbreviated compound of 減り (heri, noun stem of verb 減る (heru, to reduce, to decrease, to diminish)) +‎ 込む (komu, to go inwardly).[3]

Pronunciation[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Noun[edit]

(へこみ) (hekomi

  1. a pit, a hollow, a cavity, a depression, a dent
  2. a mistake, and error
  3. a moment of weakness or confusion, being at a loss
Usage notes[edit]

The (へこ) (hekomi) spelling is more common.

Synonyms[edit]

Etymology 6[edit]

Kanji in this term
ぼこ
Grade: S
kun’yomi

Uncertain. Possibly onomatopoeic from the sound of a wheel bouncing in a rut or pothole, or from the sound of something hollow when tapped. Compare adverb ぼこぼこ (bokoboko, full of holes; hollowly).

Alternately, may be compound of (bo, empty?, uncertain; possibly related to verb 掘る (horu, to dig, to dig out)) +‎ (ko, place, suffixing element seen in other words such as そこ (soko, there) or 端っこ (hashikko, edge, end, tip)). Compare (deko, protrusion), likely a compound of (de, coming out) + (ko, place, suffixing element).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

(ぼこ) (boko

  1. an indentation, a dip or divot, a hollow, a dent in a surface
Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
  4. ^ 1995, 大辞泉 (Daijisen) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan, →ISBN

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

(eumhun 오목할 (omokhal yo))

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

: Hán Nôm readings: ao

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.