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U+51F9, 凹
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-51F9

[U+51F8]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+51FA]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
5 strokes
Stroke order (Japan)
5 strokes

Han character[edit]

(Kangxi radical 17, +3, 5 strokes, cangjie input 尸尸山 (SSU), four-corner 77770, composition)

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 135, character 10
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 1810
  • Dae Jaweon: page 301, character 6
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 1, page 308, character 3
  • Unihan data for U+51F9

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.

Glyph origin[edit]

Pictogram (象形).

Etymology[edit]

This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.
Particularly: “Related to (ào) or (āo)?”

Pronunciation 1[edit]


Note:
  • nap1 - semantic (訓讀), common;
  • aau3 - variant, used in place names.
  • Hakka
  • Min Nan
  • Note:
    • au - literary;
    • lap - literary (俗);
    • nah - vernacular (俗).

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (34)
    Final () (152)
    Tone (調) Checked (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () II
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ʔˠɛp̚/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ʔᵚæp̚/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ʔɐp̚/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ʔəɨp̚/
    Li
    Rong
    /ʔɐp̚/
    Wang
    Li
    /ɐp̚/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ʔăp̚/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    ya
    Expected
    Cantonese
    Reflex
    aap3
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2 2/2
    No. 36 37
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    3 3
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    𨂁
    Old
    Chinese
    /*qriːw/ /*qriːb/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. concave; hollow
      透鏡 / 透镜  ―  āotòujìng  ―  concave lens
      中間落去 [Cantonese, trad.]
      中间落去 [Cantonese, simp.]
      zung1 gaan1 nap1 zo2 lok6 heoi3 [Jyutping]
      has a dent in the middle
    Antonyms[edit]
    • (, “convex”)

    Compounds[edit]

    Pronunciation 2[edit]

    Definitions[edit]

    1. Alternative form of ().

    Pronunciation 3[edit]

    Definitions[edit]

    1. (Cantonese) Alternative form of 𠱃.

    Japanese[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (common “Jōyō” kanji)

    Readings[edit]

    Etymology 1[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    おう
    Grade: S
    on’yomi

    /apu//afu//au//ɔː//oː/

    From Middle Chinese (MC ʔˠɛp̚). Compare modern Mandarin reading āo, Min Nan au.

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Affix[edit]

    (おう) (ōあふ (afu)?

    1. concave
    Usage notes[edit]

    The character with the reading ō is only used in compounds, and never in isolation.

    Compounds[edit]

    Etymology 2[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    くぼ
    Grade: S
    kun’yomi

    Unknown. Sound similarities might suggest a connection to words related to darkness or deep interior, such as (kumo, cloud), 蜘蛛 (kumo, spider), (kuma, a recess, a deep interior corner), (kuro, black), (kura, darkness); more at . Alternately, these broad similarities might be pure coincidence.

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Alternative forms[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (くぼ) (kubo

    1. an area with sides higher than the center: an indentation, a depression, a dip, a divot, a hole
    2. (slang) female genitalia, the vagina
    Derived terms[edit]
    Synonyms[edit]

    Etymology 3[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    くぼみ
    Grade: S
    kun’yomi

    Noun stem of verb 凹む (kubomu, to become hollow, to become sunken, to become indented), itself a compound of (kubo, an indentation, a dip) +‎ (mu, to become like something, auxiliary verb attaching to nouns or adjective stems, cognate with びる (biru) biru).[3]

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Alternative forms[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (くぼみ) (kubomi

    1. a pit, a hollow, a cavity, a depression, a dent
    Derived terms[edit]
    Usage notes[edit]

    The (くぼ) or (くぼ) spelling with the okurigana is more common when used as a standalone term. The spelling without the okurigana is more common in compounds.

    Etymology 4[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    なかくぼ
    Grade: S
    kun’yomi

    Compound of (naka, inside, inner) +‎ (kubo, pit, indentation).[3][1][4]

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Alternative forms[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (なかくぼ) (nakakubo

    1. a sunken center
    2. a place or object with a sunken center
    Usage notes[edit]

    The (なか)(くぼ) spelling is more common.

    Synonyms[edit]

    Etymology 5[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    へこみ
    Grade: S
    kun’yomi

    Noun stem of verb 凹む (hekomu, to become hollow, to become sunken, to become indented), itself an abbreviated compound of 減り (heri, noun stem of verb 減る (heru, to reduce, to decrease, to diminish)) +‎ 込む (komu, to go inwardly).[3]

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Alternative forms[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (へこみ) (hekomi

    1. a pit, a hollow, a cavity, a depression, a dent
    2. a mistake, and error
    3. a moment of weakness or confusion, being at a loss
    Usage notes[edit]

    The (へこ) (hekomi) spelling is more common.

    Synonyms[edit]

    Etymology 6[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    ぼこ
    Grade: S
    kun’yomi

    Uncertain. Possibly onomatopoeic from the sound of a wheel bouncing in a rut or pothole, or from the sound of something hollow when tapped. Compare adverb ぼこぼこ (bokoboko, full of holes; hollowly).

    Alternately, may be compound of (bo, empty?, uncertain; possibly related to verb 掘る (horu, to dig, to dig out)) +‎ (ko, place, suffixing element seen in other words such as そこ (soko, there) or 端っこ (hashikko, edge, end, tip)). Compare (deko, protrusion), likely a compound of (de, coming out) + (ko, place, suffixing element).

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (ぼこ) (boko

    1. an indentation, a dip or divot, a hollow, a dent in a surface
    Derived terms[edit]

    References[edit]

    1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN
    3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
    4. ^ 1995, 大辞泉 (Daijisen) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan, →ISBN

    Korean[edit]

    Hanja[edit]

    (eumhun 오목할 (omokhal yo))

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    : Hán Nôm readings: ao

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.