蜘蛛

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Chinese[edit]

spider
simp. and trad.
(蜘蛛)
alternative forms 鼅鼄 obsolete
䵹鼄
Wikipedia has an article on:
蜘蛛

Etymology[edit]

Reduplication in Old Chinese (Baxter and Sagart, 1998).

This etymology is incomplete. You can help Wiktionary by elaborating on the origins of this term.

Pronunciation[edit]



Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1 1/1
Initial () (9) (9)
Final () (11) (24)
Tone (調) Level (Ø) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open Closed
Division () III III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ʈiᴇ/ /ʈɨo/
Pan
Wuyun
/ʈiɛ/ /ʈio/
Shao
Rongfen
/ȶjɛ/ /ȶio/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ʈiə̆/ /ʈuə̆/
Li
Rong
/ȶie/ /ȶio/
Wang
Li
/ȶǐe/ /ȶĭu/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ȶie̯/ /ȶi̯u/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
zhī zhū
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
zi1 zyu1
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
zhī zhū
Middle
Chinese
‹ trje › ‹ trju ›
Old
Chinese
/*tre/ /*tro/
English *tre.tro spider *tre-tro spider

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1 1/1
No. 11496 17564
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0 0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*te/ /*to/
Notes

Noun[edit]

蜘蛛

  1. spider

Synonyms[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

Descendants[edit]

Sino-Xenic (蜘蛛):

Japanese[edit]

Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia ja

Etymology 1[edit]

Kanji in this term
くも
Hyōgaiji Hyōgaiji
jukujikun

From Old Japanese. Found in the Man'yōshū, completed in 759 CE.

Ultimate derivation unknown. Various theories exist, including:

  • from 籠もる (komoru, to hide inside something), from the way that spiders hide in their webs
  • from 組む (kumu, to bundle something together), from the way that spiders wrap up caught insects
  • from (kumo, cloud), from the way that spider webs may look vaguely like clouds
  • from reconstructed Proto-Japonic *kompo, *konbo (spider);[1] possibly cognate with Kagoshima こっ koʔ (< kobu) "spider"; Tanegashima こぶ kobu "large spider"; Amami (Setouchi) こぶ kobu; Okinawan くーばー kuuba; Yonaguni くぶ kubu "spider".[2] If true, then 蜘蛛 (kumo, spider) would be unrelated to (kumo, cloud), whose proto-form was likely *kumo, as suggested by Okinawan くむ kumu, Yonaguni んむ nmu, Kunigami and Yoron ふむ fumu.[3]

May ultimately be cognate with Korean 거미 (geomi, spider). The kanji are an orthographic borrowing from Chinese 蜘蛛.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

蜘蛛(くも) (kumo

  1. spider
    • c. 918, Honzō Wamyō
      蜘蛛 楊玄操、知誅二音 一名䖦𬠴仁諝、拙牟二音 一名絡新婦赤班者 一名蠨蛸仁諝、上音蕭、所交反、下本條 𧋌音秋 一名蝳蜍毒途二音 一名社公 一名張公網 一名蝃蝥拙牟二音、已上五名、出兼名苑 一名長蝥身小足長、出古今注 和名久毛
    • 芥川龍之介, 蜘蛛の糸
      ()(しゃ)()(さま)()(ごく)(よう)()()(らん)になりながら、この(かん)()()には蜘蛛(クモ)(たす)けた(こと)があるのを()(おも)()しになりました。
      O-shaka-sama wa jigoku no yōsu o goran ni narinagara, kono Kandata ni wa kumo o tasuketa koto ga aru no o o-omoidashi ni narimashita.
      While observing the state of Hell, Shakyamuni recalled that this Kandata had once spared a spider.
    • 1999 March 27, “蜘蛛(クモ)(おとこ) [Werespider]”, in Vol.2, Konami:
      (きょ)(だい)クモ()()をつけた姿(すがた)(いと)()(うご)きを(ふう)()める。
      Kyodai kumo ga chie o tsuketa sugata. Ito o haki ugoki o fūjikomeru.
      This giant spider appears to be quite intelligent. It will lock your every movement with its threads.
    • 1999 July 22, “ハンター・スパイダー [Hunter Spider]”, in Vol.4, Konami:
      クモ()(わな)()()()りをする。(わな)にかかったものは()べてしまう。
      Kumo no su no wana o shikakekari o suru. Wana ni kakatta mono wa tabete shimau.
      It hunts by laying its spiderweb traps, and it eats whatever gets tangled in them.
Usage notes[edit]

As with many terms that name organisms, this term is often spelled in katakana, especially in biological contexts (where katakana is customary), as クモ.

Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Noun[edit]

蜘蛛(こっ) (ko'

  1. (dialect, Kagoshima) spider

Etymology 3[edit]

Noun[edit]

蜘蛛(こぶ) (kobu

  1. (dialect, Kumamoto, Miyazaki, Saga) spider
  2. (dialect, Tanegashima) large spider

Etymology 4[edit]

Kanji in this term

Hyōgaiji
ちゅう
Hyōgaiji
on’yomi

From Middle Chinese 蜘蛛 (ʈiᴇ ʈɨo). Compare modern Hakka reading tî-tû, Min Dong tĭ-tṳ̆, Min Nan ti-tu. Probably borrowed at a different time or from a different dialect than chichu below.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

()(ちゅう) (chichū

  1. spider
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 5[edit]

Kanji in this term

Hyōgaiji
ちゅ
Hyōgaiji
on’yomi

From Middle Chinese 蜘蛛 (ʈiᴇ ʈɨo). Compare modern Hakka reading tî-tû, Min Dong tĭ-tṳ̆, Min Nan ti-tu. Probably borrowed at a different time or from a different dialect than chichū above.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

()(ちゅ) (chichu

  1. spider

Etymology 6[edit]

Kanji in this term

Hyōgaiji
しゅ
Hyōgaiji
on’yomi

From Middle Chinese 蜘蛛 (ʈiᴇ ʈɨo). This reading is the kan'yōyomi, and is thus a later phonetic shift after borrowing, read as .

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

()(しゅ) (chishu

  1. spider
Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Vovin, Alexander (2021), “Names of Large Exotic Animals and the Urheimat of Japonic”, in International Journal of Eurasian Linguistics, issue 3, pages 105-120
  2. ^ 蜘蛛's regional variants in JLect
  3. ^ 雲's regional variants in JLect
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  5. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN
  • Fukane no Sukehito (c. 901–923), Maruyama Yumiko, Wu Qian, editors, Honzō Wamyō: Eiin, Honkoku to Kenkyū) (in Japanese), Kyūko Shoin, published 2021, →ISBN.
  • こっ【蜘蛛】” in JLect - Japonic Languages and Dialects Database Dictionary, 2019.
  • こぶ【蜘蛛】” in JLect - Japonic Languages and Dialects Database Dictionary, 2019.
  • こぶ【蜘蛛】” in JLect - Japonic Languages and Dialects Database Dictionary, 2019.

Korean[edit]

Hanja in this term

Noun[edit]

蜘蛛 (jiju) (hangeul 지주)

  1. Hanja form? of 지주 (spider).

Okinawan[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

蜘蛛 (hiragana くーばー, rōmaji kūbā)

  1. spider

References[edit]

  • くーばー【蜘蛛】” in JLect - Japonic Languages and Dialects Database Dictionary, 2019.
  • クーバー” in Okinawa Center of Language Study, Shuri-Naha Dialect Dictionary.

Southern Amami-Oshima[edit]

Noun[edit]

蜘蛛 (hiragana こぶ, rōmaji kobu)

  1. spider

References[edit]

  • こぶ【蜘蛛】” in JLect - Japonic Languages and Dialects Database Dictionary, 2019.

Vietnamese[edit]

Hán tự in this term

Noun[edit]

蜘蛛

  1. chữ Hán form of tri thù (arachnid).

Yonaguni[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

蜘蛛 (hiragana くぶ, rōmaji kubu)

  1. spider

References[edit]

  • くぶ【蜘蛛】” in JLect - Japonic Languages and Dialects Database Dictionary, 2019.