凹む

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Japanese[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Kanji in this term
くぼ
Grade: S
kun'yomi

Verb derived from noun / ‎(kubo, an indentation, a depression) + verbalizing suffix ‎(bu, becoming like [noun]),[1] with suffix ‎(bu) mutating to ‎(mu) due to the preceding syllable ‎(bo).

Pronunciation[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Verb[edit]

凹む ‎(intransitive, godan conjugation, hiragana くぼむ, romaji kubomu)

  1. to become hollow, cave in, sink in
Conjugation[edit]
Usage notes[edit]

The transitive form is 凹める / 窪める ‎(kubomeru). Consequently, the potential form is the same as the passive form, くぼまれる ‎(kubomareru), instead of くぼめる ‎(kubomeru) as shown in the table above.

The spelling 窪む is used more often for くぼむ, because the alternate spelling 凹む can also be read as へこむ (see below).

Etymology 2[edit]

Kanji in this term
へこ
Grade: S
kun'yomi

/herikomu//hekomu/

Contraction of 減りこむ ‎(herikomu), itself a compound of 減り ‎(heri, lessening, becoming less, the 連用形 ‎(ren'yōkei, continuative or stem form) of verb 減る heru, “to reduce, to become less”) +‎ 込む ‎(komu, to go inwardly).[1]

Pronunciation[edit]

Verb[edit]

凹む ‎(intransitive, godan conjugation, hiragana へこむ, romaji hekomu)

  1. to become hollow, cave in, sink in: see the kubomu reading above
  2. to decline below a certain point, to become less
  3. to be stuck to be at a loss: see 困る ‎(komaru).
  4. to yield, to submit
Conjugation[edit]

References[edit]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
  2. 2.0 2.1 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9