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Translingual[edit]

Han character[edit]

(radical 96 +7, 11 strokes, cangjie input 一土戈十水 (MGIJE), four-corner 13132, composition)

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 732, character 29
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 21011
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1144, character 6
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 2, page 1114, character 15
  • Unihan data for U+7403

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.
alt. forms

Glyph origin[edit]

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *ɡu): semantic  + phonetic  ‎(OC *ɡu)

Etymology[edit]

"Ball", earlier some "kind of jade". Bodman (1980) relates this to Wuming Zhuang klauA2 ‎(ball), and relates (qiú, “gem-adorned”) to Tibetan གྲུ ‎(gru, lustre of gems). This character had a softened initial in Proto-Min.

Pronunciation[edit]


Middle Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Character (), Pronunciation 1/1

Initial: (30)
Final: (136)
Tone: Level (Ø)

Openness: Open
Division: III
Fanqie:

Expected Mandarin reflex: qiú
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Pan
Wuyun
Shao
Rongfen
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Li
Rong
Wang
Li
Bernard
Karlgren
/ɡɨu/ /ɡiu/ /ɡiəu/ /guw/ /ɡiu/ /ɡĭəu/ /gi̯ə̯u/
Old Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character Modern Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle Chinese Old Chinese English
qiú ‹ gjuw › /*[ɡ](r)[u]/ "ball"?

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

  • Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
  • Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
  • Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
  • Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;
  • Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character No. Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
Corresponding
MC rime
Old Chinese Notes
10561 1 𧚍 /*ɡu/

Definitions[edit]

  1. beautiful jade
  2. percussion instrument made of jade
  3. ball, globe, orb
  4. (mathematics) sphere
  5. round, spherical
  6. earth
  7. ball (in sports)
  8. ball game
  9. Classifier for spherical objects.
  10. (Teochew, Xiang) Classifier for stringed objects. string
  11. (dialectal Mandarin, Jin, vulgar) Expletive. Often used in the form of ……個球. Underlying meaning may be "testes".

Compounds[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 3 “Kyōiku” kanji)

Readings[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Kanji in this term
きゅう
Grade: 3
on'yomi

From Middle Chinese ‎(gjuw, ball, sphere, orb).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana きゅう, romaji kyū, historical hiragana きう)

  1. sphere; globe; orb
  2. (baseball) pitch

Etymology 2[edit]

Kanji in this term
たま
Grade: 3
kun'yomi

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

‎(shinjitai kanji, kyūjitai kanji , hiragana たま, romaji tama)

  1. ball
  2. bulb (as in a light bulb)

References[edit]

  1. 1.0 1.1 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9
  2. 2.0 2.1 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, ISBN 978-4-14-011112-3

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

‎(gu) (hangeul , revised gu, McCune-Reischauer ku, Yale kwu)

  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(cầu)

  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.