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U+6CE2, 波
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-6CE2

[U+6CE1]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+6CE3]
See also:

Translingual[edit]

Han character[edit]

(radical 85 +5, 8 strokes, cangjie input 水木竹水 (EDHE), four-corner 34147, composition)

Derived characters[edit]

Descendants[edit]

  • Japanese: (ha)

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 617, character 8
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 17308
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1012, character 6
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 3, page 1597, character 7
  • Unihan data for U+6CE2

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.

Glyph origin[edit]

Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*pral, *prals
*pral, *prals
*pralʔ
*pralʔ
*pralʔ, *prals
*prals
*prals, *paːlʔ
*pʰral, *pʰralʔ
*pʰral
*pʰral, *pʰrals
*pʰral
*pʰral
*pʰral
*pʰral
*pʰral, *brals
*pʰral, *pʰrals
*pʰralʔ, *paːl
*bral
*bral
*bralʔ, *brals
*brals
*brals
*mbralʔ
*paːl
*paːl, *baːl
*paːl
*paːlʔ, *paːls
*paːlʔ, *pʰaːlʔ
*pʰaːl, *pʰaːlʔ, *pʰaːls
*pʰaːl
*pʰaːl
*pʰaːls
*baːl
*baːl

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *paːl): semantic  (water) + phonetic  (OC *bral) – waves of water.

Etymology 1[edit]

“(Cantonese) ball; ball game”
Borrowing from English ball.

Pronunciation[edit]


Note: 4poq - only used in 寧波.

  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /pʰo⁵⁵/
/po⁵⁵/
Harbin /pɤ⁴⁴/
/pʰɤ⁴⁴/
Tianjin /pʰo²¹/
Jinan /pə²¹³/
Qingdao /pə²¹³/
Zhengzhou /pʰo²⁴/
Xi'an /pʰo²¹/
Xining /pɔ⁴⁴/
Yinchuan /puə⁴⁴/
Lanzhou /pə³¹/
Ürümqi /pɤ⁴⁴/
Wuhan /po⁵⁵/
Chengdu /po⁵⁵/
Guiyang /po⁵⁵/
Kunming /po⁴⁴/
Nanjing /po³¹/
Hefei /pʊ²¹/
Jin Taiyuan /pɤ¹¹/
Pingyao /pʰɔ¹³/
/pɔ¹³/
Hohhot /pɤ³¹/
Wu Shanghai /pu⁵³/
Suzhou /pu⁵⁵/
Hangzhou /po³³/
Wenzhou /pu³³/
Hui Shexian /pɔ³¹/
Tunxi /po¹¹/
Xiang Changsha /po³³/
Xiangtan /po³³/
Gan Nanchang /po⁴²/
Hakka Meixian /po⁴⁴/
Taoyuan /po²⁴/
Cantonese Guangzhou /pɔ⁵³/
Nanning /pɔ⁵⁵/
Hong Kong /pɔ⁵⁵/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /po⁵⁵/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /pʰo⁴⁴/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /pɔ⁵⁴/
Shantou (Min Nan) /po³³/
Haikou (Min Nan) /ʔbo²³/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (1)
Final () (95)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Closed
Division () I
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/puɑ/
Pan
Wuyun
/puɑ/
Shao
Rongfen
/puɑ/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/pwa/
Li
Rong
/puɑ/
Wang
Li
/puɑ/
Bernard
Karlgren
/puɑ/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle
Chinese
‹ pa ›
Old
Chinese
/*pˤaj/
English wave (n.)

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 9719
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*paːl/

Definitions[edit]

  1. wave; breaker
  2. undulation
  3. (Sichuan, particularly Chongqing and Neijiang) elderly person
  4. (Cantonese) ball
  5. (Cantonese) ball game, especially football
  6. Short for 波蘭波兰 (Bōlán, “Poland”).
  7. Short for 波斯 (Bōsī, “Persia”).
  8. A surname​.

Compounds[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

For pronunciation and definitions of – see .
(This character, , is the second-round simplified form of .)
Notes:

Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 3 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Kanji in this term
なみ
Grade: 3
kun'yomi

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

(hiragana なみ, rōmaji nami)

  1. wave

Proper noun[edit]

(hiragana なみ, rōmaji Nami)

  1. 波子 Namiko, female given name

Proper noun[edit]

(hiragana , rōmaji Po)

  1. (abbreviation) short notation of Poland

References[edit]

  1. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9
  2. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, ISBN 978-4-14-011112-3

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

(pa) (hangeul , revised pa, McCune-Reischauer p'a, Yale pha)

  1. (물결, mulgyeol) wave, undulation

Derived terms[edit]


Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(ba, bể)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.