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See also:
U+6CE2, 波
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-6CE2

[U+6CE1]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+6CE3]

Translingual[edit]

Han character[edit]

(radical 85, +5, 8 strokes, cangjie input 水木竹水 (EDHE), four-corner 34147, composition)

Derived characters[edit]

Descendants[edit]

  • Japanese: (ha)

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 617, character 8
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 17308
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1012, character 6
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 3, page 1597, character 7
  • Unihan data for U+6CE2

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.
Wikipedia has an article on:
水面波

Glyph origin[edit]

Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*pral, *prals
*pral, *prals
*pralʔ
*pralʔ
*pralʔ, *prals
*prals
*prals, *paːlʔ
*pʰral, *pʰralʔ
*pʰral
*pʰral, *pʰrals
*pʰral
*pʰral
*pʰral
*pʰral
*pʰral, *brals
*pʰral, *pʰrals
*pʰralʔ, *paːl
*bral
*bral
*bralʔ, *brals
*brals
*brals
*mbralʔ
*paːl
*paːl, *baːl
*paːl
*paːlʔ, *paːls
*paːlʔ, *pʰaːlʔ
*pʰaːl, *pʰaːlʔ, *pʰaːls
*pʰaːl
*pʰaːl
*pʰaːls
*baːl
*baːl

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *paːl): semantic  (water) + phonetic  (OC *bral).

Etymology 1[edit]

“wave; undulation”
Debated.
STEDT and Starostin derive it from Proto-Sino-Tibetan *r/m-ba (wave; ripple). Cognate with Tibetan རྦ (rba), དབའ (dba', wave).
Schuessler (2007) notes a mismatch of the vowels in the above comparanda, and instead posits a root *paj (“slanted; not level”), also subsuming (OC *pral, “slope; slanting”).
Wang (1982) relates it to (OC *paːls, “to winnow”), (OC *paːlʔ, *paːls, “to winnow”).
“ball; ball game; gearbox; typhoon signal; boob; dance”
Borrowed from English ball.

Pronunciation[edit]


Note: 4poq - only used in 寧波.

  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /pʰo⁵⁵/
/po⁵⁵/
Harbin /pɤ⁴⁴/
/pʰɤ⁴⁴/
Tianjin /pʰo²¹/
Jinan /pə²¹³/
Qingdao /pə²¹³/
Zhengzhou /pʰo²⁴/
Xi'an /pʰo²¹/
Xining /pɔ⁴⁴/
Yinchuan /puə⁴⁴/
Lanzhou /pə³¹/
Ürümqi /pɤ⁴⁴/
Wuhan /po⁵⁵/
Chengdu /po⁵⁵/
Guiyang /po⁵⁵/
Kunming /po⁴⁴/
Nanjing /po³¹/
Hefei /pʊ²¹/
Jin Taiyuan /pɤ¹¹/
Pingyao /pʰɔ¹³/
/pɔ¹³/
Hohhot /pɤ³¹/
Wu Shanghai /pu⁵³/
Suzhou /pu⁵⁵/
Hangzhou /po³³/
Wenzhou /pu³³/
Hui Shexian /pɔ³¹/
Tunxi /po¹¹/
Xiang Changsha /po³³/
Xiangtan /po³³/
Gan Nanchang /po⁴²/
Hakka Meixian /po⁴⁴/
Taoyuan /po²⁴/
Cantonese Guangzhou /pɔ⁵³/
Nanning /pɔ⁵⁵/
Hong Kong /pɔ⁵⁵/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /po⁵⁵/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /pʰo⁴⁴/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /pɔ⁵⁴/
Shantou (Min Nan) /po³³/
Haikou (Min Nan) /ʔbo²³/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (1)
Final () (95)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Closed
Division () I
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/puɑ/
Pan
Wuyun
/puɑ/
Shao
Rongfen
/puɑ/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/pwa/
Li
Rong
/puɑ/
Wang
Li
/puɑ/
Bernard
Karlgren
/puɑ/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle
Chinese
‹ pa ›
Old
Chinese
/*pˁaj/
English wave (n.)

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 9719
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*paːl/

Definitions[edit]

  1. wave; breaker
  2. undulation
  3. (sciences) wave
    /   ―  shēng  ―  sound wave
      ―  wēi  ―  microwave
  4. (Sichuan, including Chongqing and Neijiang) elderly person
  5. (Cantonese) ball (Classifier: )
  6. (Cantonese) ball game, especially football (Classifier: )
  7. (Cantonese) gearbox; transmission
  8. (Hong Kong Cantonese) typhoon signal (issued by the Hong Kong Observatory)
    / [Cantonese]  ―  baat3 hou6 bo1 [Jyutping]  ―  Typhoon Signal No. 8
  9. (chiefly Hong Kong Cantonese) boob; breast (Classifier: ; )
  10. (Hong Kong Cantonese) dance; ball (Classifier: )
  11. Short for 波蘭波兰 (Bōlán, “Poland”).
  12. Short for 波斯 (Bōsī, “Persia”).
  13. A surname​.

Compounds[edit]

See also[edit]

Dialectal synonyms of 乳房 (“breast”) [map]
Variety Location Words
Classical Chinese
Formal (Written Standard Chinese) 乳房
Mandarin Beijing 咂兒咂咂兒媽媽
Taiwan 咪咪奶子
Tianjin 個個
Harbin 奶子奶胖子咂兒咂咂兒媽兒媽兒
Hailar 咂咂兒
Ulan Hot 咂兒奶頭媽媽
Tongliao 咂兒奶頭
Chifeng 乳房
Bayanhot 高高奶頭
Jinan 媽媽
Muping 奶子
Luoyang
Jiedian
Xi'an 奶頭
Qingdao 奶子
Zhengzhou
Xining 奶頭
Xuzhou 媽媽
Yinchuan 高高
Lanzhou 苶苶
Ürümqi 奶子高高
Wuhan 媽媽
Chengdu 奶奶包子 humorous
Guiyang 咪咪
Guilin
Liuzhou
Kunming
Yangzhou 奶子
Nanjing 奶兒奶子
Hefei 奶頭
Nantong 奶子
Cantonese Guangzhou 𢆡
Hong Kong 𢆡
Shunde 乳房
Foshan 𢆡
Zhongshan 𢆡
Dongguan 𢆡
Hong Kong (Weitou) 媽仔
Doumen (Shangheng Tanka) 𢆡
Taishan 𢆡
Kaiping 𢆡
Shaoguan
Yunfu 𢆡
Yangjiang 𢆡
Xinyi 𢆡
Nanning
Wuzhou
Yulin 𢆡
Kuala Lumpur 𢆡
Gan Nanchang
Lichuan
Pingxiang
Hakka Meixian 乳菇
Xingning 乳菇
Huidong 乳菇
Qujiang
Xiaosanjiang 乳房
Luchuan
Changting
Pingyu 乳菇
Wuping 乳菇
Ninghua 乳菇
Yudu
Ruijin
Shicheng 乳菇
Shangyou
Miaoli (N. Sixian) 乳菇
Liudui (S. Sixian) 乳菇
Hsinchu (Hailu) 乳菇
Dongshi (Dabu) 乳菇
Hsinchu (Raoping) 乳菇
Yunlin (Zhao'an)
Hong Kong 乳菇
Sabah
Senai 乳菇
Singkawang 乳菇
Huizhou Jixi 奶脯
Shexian
Tunxi
Jin Taiyuan 奶奶
Xinzhou 奶奶奶牛奶牛牛
Baochang
Jining
Hohhot 牛牛
Baotou
Dongsheng
Linhe 奶頭
Haibowan 奶頭
Min Bei Jian'ou 奶脬奶座
Min Dong Fuzhou 奶奶
Changle 奶奶
Fuqing 奶奶
Yongtai
Gutian
Fu'an
Ningde
Shouning
Zhouning
Fuding
Min Nan Xiamen 奶仔
Quanzhou 奶仔
Zhangzhou 奶仔
Taipei
Kaohsiung
Tainan
Taichung
Wuqi
Hsinchu
Taitung
Lukang
Sanxia 奶仔
Yilan
Kinmen
Magong
Penang
Singapore 奶仔
Philippines (Manila) 奶仔
Pingnan
Chaozhou
Shantou
Johor Bahru
Wenchang
Haikou
Puxian Min Putian
Xianyou
Pinghua Nanning 奶頭
Guilin
Wu Shanghai 奶奶
Suzhou 奶奶
Hangzhou 奶奶
Wenzhou 奶奶
Chongming
Danyang 奶奶
Jinhua 奶窠
Ningbo 奶奶脯奶脯奶奶
Xiang Changsha 奶子奶唧唧 childish唧唧 childish
Shuangfeng 奶婆
Xiangtan 奶痣婆
Loudi 奶婆
Quanzhou 奶婆

Etymology 2[edit]

For pronunciation and definitions of – see (“to winnow; to bump; to jerk; to jolt”).
(This character, , is the second-round simplified form of .)
Notes:

Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 3 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. wave

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]


Kanji in this term
なみ
Grade: 3
kun’yomi

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

(hiragana なみ, rōmaji nami)

  1. wave

Proper noun[edit]

(hiragana なみ, rōmaji Nami)

  1. A female given name

Proper noun[edit]

(hiragana , rōmaji Po)

  1. (abbreviation) short notation of Poland

References[edit]

  1. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  2. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

(pa) (hangeul , revised pa, McCune–Reischauer p'a, Yale pha)

  1. (물결, mulgyeol) wave, undulation

Derived terms[edit]


Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(ba, bể)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.