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See also:
U+9CE9, 鳩
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-9CE9

[U+9CE8]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+9CEA]

Translingual[edit]

Han character[edit]

(radical 196, +2, 13 strokes, cangjie input 大弓竹日火 (KNHAF), four-corner 47027, composition)

Derived characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 1481, character 10
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 46648
  • Dae Jaweon: page 2013, character 12
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 7, page 4613, character 13
  • Unihan data for U+9CE9

Chinese[edit]

trad.
simp.
alternative forms
𩾛
Wikipedia has articles on:

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
鳩-seal.svg 鳩-bigseal.svg

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *ku): phonetic  (OC *kuʔ) + semantic  (bird).

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *m-k(r)əw (dove, pigeon) (Benedict, 1974; Schuessler, 2007; STEDT). Compare Tibetan འང་གུ ('ang gu, pigeon), Proto-Loloish *m-krəw², Burmese ချိုး (hkyui:), Proto-Kuki-Chin *khruu.

In some southern Chinese dialects, is pronounced with aspirated initial /kʰ/ due to taboo considerations.

Pronunciation[edit]


Note:
  • kau1 - common for non-vulgar senses;
  • gau1 - common for vulgar senses.
  • Hakka
  • Jin
  • Min Bei
  • Min Dong
  • Min Nan
  • Wu
  • Xiang

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (28)
    Final () (136)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /kɨu/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /kiu/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /kiəu/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /kuw/
    Li
    Rong
    /kiu/
    Wang
    Li
    /kĭəu/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ki̯ə̯u/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    jiū
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    jiū
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ kjuw ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*[k](r)u/
    English (a kind of bird)

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 6939
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    1
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*ku/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. pigeon; dove (family Columbidae)
    2. (literary) to gather; to assemble
    3. (Cantonese, vulgar) Alternative form of (gau1).

    Compounds[edit]

    Descendants[edit]

    • ? Hmong: *ɴquᴬ (pigeon)

    Japanese[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (“Jinmeiyō” kanji used for names)

    Readings[edit]

    Compounds[edit]

    Etymology 1[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    はと
    Jinmeiyō
    kun’yomi
    Alternative spelling 鴿
    (hato): a pigeon, a dove.
    Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
    Wikipedia ja
    English Wikipedia has an article on:
    Wikipedia

    ⟨pato1 → */patʷo//ɸato//hato/

    From Old Japanese, appears in the Kojiki of 712 CE.[1]

    Possibly ultimately from はたはた (hatahata), an onomatopoeia for the sound of a dove or pigeon's wings in flight.

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (はと) (hato

    1. a pigeon, a dove: a bird of genus Columba
    Usage notes[edit]

    As with many terms that name organisms, this term is often spelled in katakana, especially in biological contexts, as ハト.

    Derived terms[edit]
    Idioms[edit]

    Etymology 2[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    きゅう
    Jinmeiyō
    kan’on

    /kiu//kʲuː/

    From Middle Chinese (MC kɨu).

    Affix[edit]

    (きゅう) (kyū (historical kana きう)

    1. pigeon, dove
    2. (by extension) gather together (from the way that pigeons flock together)
    Derived terms[edit]

    References[edit]

    1. ^ 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
    2. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    3. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN
    4. ^ 1997, 新明解国語辞典 (Shin Meikai Kokugo Jiten), Fifth Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN

    Further reading[edit]


    Korean[edit]

    Hanja[edit]

    (gu) (hangeul , revised gu, McCune–Reischauer ku, Yale kwu)

    1. pigeon, dove
    2. collect, assemble

    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    (cưu)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.