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U+672A, 未
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-672A

[U+6729]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+672B]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
5 strokes

Han character[edit]

(Kangxi radical 75, +1, 5 strokes, cangjie input 十木 (JD), four-corner 50900, composition)

Derived characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 509, character 5
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 14419
  • Dae Jaweon: page 890, character 3
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 2, page 1150, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+672A

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han)
Bronze inscriptions Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Oracle bone script Chu slip and silk script Small seal script
未-bronze-shang.svg 未-oracle.svg 未-bronze.svg 未-oracle-zhouyuan.svg 未-silk.svg 未-seal.svg

Pictogram (象形) – a tree with two layers of branches, or a tree's top branches not yet at full growth, signifying not grown (yet)

Etymology[edit]

"not yet"
Pulleyblank (1995), apud Schuessler (2007), proposes that this word results from a fusion of negative root *m- with perfective particle (, “already”).
"eighth earthly branch"
Smith (2011) proposes that (OC *mɯds) denoted the waxing moon's "impending stage" before full moon. (OC *mɯds)'s early sense might be "tip" > "on the tipping point" if it could be connected to (OC *maːd, “tip”), which is similar graphically and phonologically; though what morphological mechanism which can associate them two is unclear.
As for its association with the goat, Ferlus (2013) notes there is good correspondence with Austronesian Atayal miːts (lamb); also compare Lao ມົດ (mot, year of the lamb).

Pronunciation[edit]


Note:
  • muôi - vernacular;
  • ê - literary.
  • Min Nan
  • Note:
    • bē/bēr/bōe/běr - vernacular;
    • bī - literary.
    Note:
    • bhuê7 - “not; have not”;
    • bhi7 - one of the earthly branches.
  • Wu
  • Note:
    • 3mi - vernacular;
    • 3vi - literary.
  • Xiang

  • Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (4)
    Final () (21)
    Tone (調) Departing (H)
    Openness (開合) Closed
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /mʉiH/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /mʷɨiH/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /miuəiH/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /mujH/
    Li
    Rong
    /miuəiH/
    Wang
    Li
    /mĭwəiH/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /mwe̯iH/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    wèi
    Expected
    Cantonese
    Reflex
    meoi6
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2 2/2
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    wèi wèi
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ mjɨjH › ‹ mjɨjH ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*m[ə]t-s/ /*m[ə]t-s/
    English not yet 8th earthly branch

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 12917
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    1
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*mɯds/
    Notes

    Definitions[edit]

    1. to have not; not yet
      /   ―  wèilái  ―  future [lit. have not come]
      / [Cantonese]  ―  ngo5 mei6 tai2 bun2 syu1. [Jyutping]  ―  I have not read the book.
    2. not
    3. Alternative form of (wèi).
    4. (Cantonese, Min) used at the end of questions to ask if one has done something yet
      食飽 / 食饱 [Cantonese]  ―  sik6 baau2 mei6? [Jyutping]  ―  Are you full yet?
    5. eighth of twelve earthly branches
    6. lamb () of Chinese zodiac

    Synonyms[edit]

    Coordinate terms[edit]

    Compounds[edit]

    Descendants[edit]

    Sino-Xenic ():
    • Japanese: () (mi); () (bi)
    • Korean: (, mi)
    • Vietnamese: vị ()

    Others:

    • Vietnamese: Mùi

    Further reading[edit]


    Japanese[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (grade 4 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    Readings[edit]

    Compounds[edit]

    Etymology 1[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    ひつじ
    Grade: 4
    kun’yomi
    Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
    Wikipedia ja

    From (hitsuji, sheep)

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Proper noun[edit]

    (ひつじ) (Hitsuji

    1. the Sheep, the eighth of the twelve Earthly Branches

    Etymology 2[edit]

    Kanji in this term

    Grade: 4
    on’yomi

    From Middle Chinese (mjɨjH)

    Prefix[edit]

    () (mi-

    1. un-; in- (not yet)

    Proper noun[edit]

    () (Mi

    1. the Sheep, the eighth of the twelve Earthly Branches

    Korean[edit]

    Etymology[edit]

    From Middle Chinese (MC mʉiH).

    Historical readings

    Pronunciation[edit]

    • (in 미안 (未安, mian)):
    • (not; un-; etc.):
      • (SK Standard/Seoul) IPA(key): [mi(ː)]
      • Phonetic hangul: [(ː)]
        • Though still prescriptive in Standard Korean, most speakers in both Koreas no longer distinguish vowel length.

    Hanja[edit]

    Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

    Wikisource

    (eumhun 아닐 (anil mi))

    1. Hanja form? of (not; un-; in- (not yet)).
    2. Hanja form? of (to have not; not yet).

    Compounds[edit]

    References[edit]

    • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [1]

    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    : Hán Nôm readings: mùi, vị

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.