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U+52FF, 勿
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-52FF

[U+52FE]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+5300]

Translingual

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Han character

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(Kangxi radical 20, +2, 4 strokes, cangjie input 心竹竹 (PHH), four-corner 27220, composition 丿丿)

Derived characters

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See also

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References

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  • Kangxi Dictionary: page 150, character 24
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 2501
  • Dae Jaweon: page 339, character 14
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 1, page 255, character 2
  • Unihan data for U+52FF

Chinese

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Glyph origin

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Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Chu slip and silk script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts

Pictogram (象形) – blood on a knife; the original character of (OC *mɯnʔ, “to cut”). Phonetically borrowed for the negative particle since the time of the oracle bone script.

Etymology 1

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simp. and trad.
do not (verb) him/her/it!
Fusion of (OC *ma, “should not; don't!”) with (OC *tjɯ, “third-person pronoun”) (Schuessler, 2007).

Pronunciation

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Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (4)
Final () (60)
Tone (調) Checked (Ø)
Openness (開合) Closed
Division () III
Fanqie
Baxter mjut
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/mɨut̚/
Pan
Wuyun
/miut̚/
Shao
Rongfen
/miuət̚/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/mut̚/
Li
Rong
/miuət̚/
Wang
Li
/mĭuət̚/
Bernard
Karlgren
/mi̯uət̚/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
mat6
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle
Chinese
‹ mjut › ‹ mjut ›
Old
Chinese
/*mut/ /*mut/
English don"t not ... it

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 13219
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*mɯd/
Notes

Definitions

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  1. (literary or formal, imperative) do not; don't
    吸煙吸烟  ―  qǐng xīyān  ―  no smoking (lit. please do not smoke)
  2. (literary) not
  3. Used in 勿勿.
Synonyms
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Compounds

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Etymology 2

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simp. and trad.
alternative forms

According to Pan (2002), developed from a labiodentalized and checked variant of (OC *pɯ, *pɯʔ, *pɯ').

In certain varieties the initial has gained voicing and in some cases caused the word shifted to yang tones, either restricted to specific syntactical positions or in all contexts.

See also (feq).

Pronunciation

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Note:
  • 8veq - tonal innovation specific to urban Shanghainese, demonstrates same left-prominent tone sandhi pattern as tone 6 in chains of more than 3 character;
  • 7veq - the character sandhis as tone 7 in urban Shanghainese and most Suburban Shanghainese varieties, sometimes also realised as [βəʔ~ʋəʔ] depending on absence or presence of the /u/-/β/ merger often recognized as a shared innovation across suburban Shanghainese varieties.

    Definitions

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    1. (Wu) not
      [Shanghainese]  ―  5te-6veq8-chi5 [Wugniu]  ―  Sorry
      閒話 [Shanghainese, trad.]
      闲话 [Shanghainese, simp.]
      8geq-tson 6veq8-gni-veq-se-gheq 6ghe-gho 6non 6veq8-iau 5chi 8ghoq-yi [Wugniu]
      This type of unholy delinquent language - don't you go on imitating all that!
    Synonyms
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    Usage notes
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    • In Urban Shanghainese, has the same tone sandhi as the light departing (陽去) tone, as opposed to the expected light checked (陽入) tone. This had developed from a stage in which the character had the dark checked (陽入) tone and the voiced initial of /β~v/, reflecting a transitional stage in the character's gain of voicing in Shanghai. The dark checked tone sandhi pattern is still preserved in more conservative urban lects, as well as the majority of non-urban Shanghainese varieties.
    • , and are all characters that have been popular in representing the checked and labiodentalized series of negators, generally pronounced as /fəʔ/, /vəʔ/ or both depending on the exact variety. In historical literature, the exact choice of character varied between the topolects and the preferences of individual writers.
    • In some contemporary proposals aiming to standardize cross-topolectal writing in Wu, it is preferred that the voiced variants of the negator be written with and the unvoiced variants of the negator with . This is often received somewhat inconsistently, however, and the choice between the variant characters remains largely a matter of personal preference.

    Compounds

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    Etymology 3

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    Pronunciation

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    Definitions

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    1. (Southern Min) Alternative form of ((imperative) do not; don't)

    Etymology 4

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    Pronunciation

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    Definitions

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    1. Only used in 卹勿.

    Japanese

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    Kanji

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    (“Jinmeiyō” kanji used for names)

    1. negation
    2. prohibition

    Readings

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    Compounds

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    Noun

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    (ぶつ) (butsu

    (もち) (mochi

    1. must not, do not, be not

    Korean

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    Hanja

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    (eumhun (mal mul))
    (eumhun 아닐 (anil mul))

    1. Hanja form? of (must not, do not).
    2. Hanja form? of (never).

    (eumhun 없을 (eopseul mol))

    1. Hanja form? of (without, lacking).

    Vietnamese

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    Han character

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    : Hán Nôm readings: vật, vặt, vất

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    Zhuang

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    Noun

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    1. Sawndip form of fwed (wing)