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U+5B78, 學
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-5B78

[U+5B77]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+5B79]
See also:

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
學-order.gif
Stroke order
(alternative)
學-aorder.gif

Han character[edit]

(radical 39 +13, 16 strokes, cangjie input 竹月弓木 (HBND), four-corner 77407, composition𦥯)

Descendants[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 280, character 28
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 7033
  • Dae Jaweon: page 549, character 27
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 2, page 1019, character 11
  • Unihan data for U+5B78

Chinese[edit]

trad.
simp.
alt. forms

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Large seal script Small seal script
學-oracle.svg 學-bronze.svg 學-bigseal.svg 學-seal.svg
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*kruːʔ
*kruːɡs, *kruːɡ
*ɡruːʔ, *sɡruːɡ, *ɡruːɡ
*ɡruːɡs
*ɡoːɡs, *quːɡ
*kʰruːɡ, *ɡruːɡ
*kʰruːɡ, *ɡ·rɯːɡ, *ɡoːɡ, *ɡuːɡ
*ŋɡruːɡ, *ɡruːɡ, *quːɡ
*ɡruːɡ
*ɡruːɡ, *qruːɡ

Ancient forms: , . The former is constructed from the skeleton of (“to teach”) with the addition of two extra components: 1) a 𦥑 component around the top-left part, signifying hands (hands-on learning); 2) a (“cover”) over (“child”), representing the cover of a building or school, i.e. the child learns in a roofed place. Shuowen regards 𦥑 as the phonetic component in the character, which may be true according to some Old Chinese reconstructions such as that of Pan Wuyun's, though probably not others. See for more.

Etymology[edit]

May be an endopassive derivation of (OC *kruːɡs, *kruːɡ, “to awake, get insight”).

Pronunciation[edit]


Note:
  • xué - major reading (colloquial and literary);
  • xiáo - rare, very colloquial or dialectal, used in xiangsheng.
Note:
  • ŏ̤h - vernacular;
  • hŏk - literary.
Note:
  • o̍h - vernacular;
  • ha̍k - literary.
Note:
  • oh8 - vernacular;
  • hag8 - literary.
Note:
  • 5hhoq - vernacular;
  • 5hhiaq - literary.

  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /ɕyɛ³⁵/
Harbin /ɕiau²⁴/
/ɕyɛ²⁴/
Tianjin /ɕiɑu⁴⁵/
/ɕye⁴⁵/
Jinan /ɕyə⁴²/
Qingdao /ɕyə⁴²/
Zhengzhou /ɕyo⁴²/
Xi'an /ɕyo²⁴/
Xining /ɕyu²⁴/
Yinchuan /ɕye¹³/
/ɕye⁵³/
Lanzhou /ɕyə⁵³/
Ürümqi /ɕyɤ⁵¹/
Wuhan /ɕio²¹³/
Chengdu /ɕyo³¹/
Guiyang /ɕio²¹/
Kunming /ɕio³¹/
Nanjing /ɕioʔ⁵/
Hefei /ɕyɐʔ⁵/
Jin Taiyuan /ɕyəʔ⁵⁴/
Pingyao /ɕiʌʔ⁵³/
Hohhot /ɕyaʔ⁴³/ ~习
/ɕiɔ³¹/ ~话
Wu Shanghai /ɦoʔ¹/
/ɦiaʔ¹/
Suzhou /ɦioʔ³/
/ɦoʔ³/
Hangzhou /ɦiɑʔ²/
Wenzhou /ɦo²¹³/
Hui Shexian /ɕiɔ²²/
/xɔ²²/
Tunxi /xo¹¹/
Xiang Changsha /ɕio²⁴/
Xiangtan /ɕio²⁴/
Gan Nanchang /hɔʔ²/
Hakka Meixian /hok̚⁵/
Taoyuan /hok̚⁵⁵/
Cantonese Guangzhou /hɔk̚²/
Nanning /hɔk̚²²/
Hong Kong /hɔk̚²/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /hak̚⁵/
/oʔ⁵/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /oʔ⁵/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /xa²⁴/
/ɔ⁴²/
Shantou (Min Nan) /hak̚⁵/
/oʔ⁵/
Haikou (Min Nan) /hiɔk̚⁵/
/o³³/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (33)
Final () (10)
Tone (調) Checked (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () II
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ɦˠʌk̚/
Pan
Wuyun
/ɦᵚɔk̚/
Shao
Rongfen
/ɣɔk̚/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ɦaɨwk̚/
Li
Rong
/ɣɔk̚/
Wang
Li
/ɣɔk̚/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ɣɔk̚/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
xué
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
xué
Middle
Chinese
‹ hæwk ›
Old
Chinese
/*m-kˤruk/
English study; imitate

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 14079
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*ɡruːɡ/
Notes

Definitions[edit]

  1. to comprehend; to realise; to understand
  2. to learn; to study
    /   ―  xué  ―  to study; to learn
    打算攝影 / 打算摄影  ―  Wǒ dǎsuàn xué shèyǐng.  ―  I plan to learn photography.
  3. to imitate; to copy; to mimic
    鸚鵡 / 鹦鹉  ―  Yīngwǔ xué rén yǔ.  ―  Parrots imitate human speech.
  4. school
  5. learning; knowledge
  6. theory; doctrine
  7. subject; branch of learning; science; -ology
    /   ―  huàxué  ―  chemistry
    生物 / 生物  ―  shēngwùxué  ―  biology

Synonyms[edit]

Compounds[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Shinjitai

Kyūjitai

Kanji[edit]

(uncommon “Hyōgai” kanjikyūjitai kanji, shinjitai form )

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]


Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

(hak)

  • Eumhun:
    • Sound (hangeul): (revised: hak, McCune-Reischauer: hak, Yale: hak)
    • Name (hangeul): 배우다 (revised: bae-uda, McCune-Reischauer: paeuda, Yale: pay.uta)
  1. learn, take lessons, be taught, study

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(học, hục)

  1. to learn, to study

Compounds[edit]

Usage notes[edit]

  • Chữ Nôm. The modern Vietnamese equivalent is học.
  • This is the regular form of the character. The common form is .

References[edit]