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U+5B78, 學
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-5B78

[U+5B77]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+5B79]
See also:

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
學-order.gif
Stroke order
(alternative)
學-aorder.gif

Han character[edit]

(radical 39 +13, 16 strokes, cangjie input 竹月弓木 (HBND), four-corner 77407, composition𦥯)

Descendants[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 280, character 28
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 7033
  • Dae Jaweon: page 549, character 27
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 2, page 1019, character 11
  • Unihan data for U+5B78

Chinese[edit]

trad.
simp.
alt. forms

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Large seal script Small seal script
學-oracle.svg 學-bronze.svg 學-bigseal.svg 學-seal.svg
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*kruːʔ
*kruːɡs, *kruːɡ
*ɡruːʔ, *sɡruːɡ, *ɡruːɡ
*ɡruːɡs
*ɡoːɡs, *quːɡ
*kʰruːɡ, *ɡruːɡ
*kʰruːɡ, *ɡ·rɯːɡ, *ɡoːɡ, *ɡuːɡ
*ŋɡruːɡ, *ɡruːɡ, *quːɡ
*ɡruːɡ
*ɡruːɡ, *qruːɡ

Ancient forms: , . The former is constructed from the skeleton of (“to teach”) with the addition of two extra components: 1) a -like component around the top-left part, signifying hands (hands-on learning); 2) a (“cover”) over (“child”), representing the cover of a building or school, i.e. the child learns in a roofed place. Shuowen regards as the phonetic component in the character, which may be true according to some Old Chinese reconstructions such as that of Pan Wuyun's, though probably not others. See for more.

Etymology[edit]

May be an endopassive derivation of (OC *kruːɡs, *kruːɡ, “to awake, get insight”).

Pronunciation[edit]


Note:
  • xué - major reading (colloquial and literary);
  • xiáo - rare, very colloquial or dialectal, used in xiangsheng.
Note:
  • ŏ̤h - vernacular;
  • hŏk - literary.
Note:
  • o̍h - vernacular;
  • ha̍k - literary.
Note:
  • oh8 - vernacular;
  • hag8 - literary.
Note:
  • 5hhoq - vernacular;
  • 5hhiaq - literary.

  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /ɕyɛ³⁵/
Harbin /ɕiau²⁴/
/ɕyɛ²⁴/
Tianjin /ɕiɑu⁴⁵/
/ɕye⁴⁵/
Jinan /ɕyə⁴²/
Qingdao /ɕyə⁴²/
Zhengzhou /ɕyo⁴²/
Xi'an /ɕyo²⁴/
Xining /ɕyu²⁴/
Yinchuan /ɕye¹³/
/ɕye⁵³/
Lanzhou /ɕyə⁵³/
Ürümqi /ɕyɤ⁵¹/
Wuhan /ɕio²¹³/
Chengdu /ɕyo³¹/
Guiyang /ɕio²¹/
Kunming /ɕio³¹/
Nanjing /ɕioʔ⁵/
Hefei /ɕyɐʔ⁵/
Jin Taiyuan /ɕyəʔ⁵⁴/
Pingyao /ɕiʌʔ⁵³/
Hohhot /ɕyaʔ⁴³/ ~习
/ɕiɔ³¹/ ~话
Wu Shanghai /ɦoʔ¹/
/ɦiaʔ¹/
Suzhou /ɦioʔ³/
/ɦoʔ³/
Hangzhou /ɦiɑʔ²/
Wenzhou /ɦo²¹³/
Hui Shexian /ɕiɔ²²/
/xɔ²²/
Tunxi /xo¹¹/
Xiang Changsha /ɕio²⁴/
Xiangtan /ɕio²⁴/
Gan Nanchang /hɔʔ²/
Hakka Meixian /hok̚⁵/
Taoyuan /hok̚⁵⁵/
Cantonese Guangzhou /hɔk̚²/
Nanning /hɔk̚²²/
Hong Kong /hɔk̚²/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /hak̚⁵/
/oʔ⁵/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /oʔ⁵/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /xa²⁴/
/ɔ⁴²/
Shantou (Min Nan) /hak̚⁵/
/oʔ⁵/
Haikou (Min Nan) /hiɔk̚⁵/
/o³³/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (33)
Final () (10)
Tone (調) Checked (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () II
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ɦˠʌk̚/
Pan
Wuyun
/ɦᵚɔk̚/
Shao
Rongfen
/ɣɔk̚/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ɦaɨwk̚/
Li
Rong
/ɣɔk̚/
Wang
Li
/ɣɔk̚/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ɣɔk̚/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
xué
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
xué
Middle
Chinese
‹ hæwk ›
Old
Chinese
/*m-kˤruk/
English study; imitate

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 14079
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*ɡruːɡ/
Notes

Definitions[edit]

  1. to comprehend; to realise; to understand
  2. to learn; to study
    /   ―  xué  ―  to study; to learn
    打算攝影 / 打算摄影  ―  Wǒ dǎsuàn xué shèyǐng.  ―  I plan to learn photography.
  3. to imitate; to copy; to mimic
    鸚鵡 / 鹦鹉  ―  Yīngwǔ xué rén yǔ.  ―  Parrots imitate human speech.
  4. school
  5. learning; knowledge
  6. theory; doctrine
  7. subject; branch of learning; science; -ology
    /   ―  huàxué  ―  chemistry
    生物 / 生物  ―  shēngwùxué  ―  biology

Synonyms[edit]

Compounds[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Shinjitai
Simplified
Traditional

Kanji[edit]

(uncommon “Hyōgai” kanjikyūjitai kanji, shinjitai form )

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]


Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

‎(hak)
Eumhun:

  • Sound (hangeul):  (revised: hak, McCune-Reischauer: hak, Yale: hak)
  • Name (hangeul): 배우다 (revised: bae-uda, McCune-Reischauer: paeuda, Yale: pay.uta)
  1. learn, take lessons, be taught, study

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(học, hục)

  1. to learn, to study

Compounds[edit]

Usage notes[edit]

  • Chữ Nôm. The modern Vietnamese equivalent is học.
  • This is the regular form of the character. The common form is .

References[edit]