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See also:
U+5B78, 學
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-5B78

[U+5B77]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+5B79]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
學-order.gif
Stroke order
(alternative)
學-aorder.gif

Han character[edit]

(radical 39, +13, 16 strokes, cangjie input 竹月弓木 (HBND), four-corner 77407, composition𦥯)

Descendants[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 280, character 28
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 7033
  • Dae Jaweon: page 549, character 27
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 2, page 1019, character 11
  • Unihan data for U+5B78

Chinese[edit]

trad.
simp. *
variant forms

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Qin slip script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
學-oracle.svg 學-bronze.svg 學-bronze-warring.svg 學-silk.svg 學-slip.svg 學-seal.svg 學-bigseal.svg
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*kruːʔ
*kruːɡs, *kruːɡ
*ɡruːʔ, *sɡruːɡ, *ɡruːɡ
*ɡruːɡs
*ɡoːɡs, *quːɡ
*kʰruːɡ, *ɡruːɡ
*kʰruːɡ, *ɡ·rɯːɡ, *ɡoːɡ, *ɡuːɡ
*ŋɡruːɡ, *ɡruːɡ, *quːɡ
*ɡruːɡ
*ɡruːɡ, *qruːɡ

Ancient forms: , . The former is constructed from the skeleton of (“to teach”) with the addition of two extra components: 1) a 𦥑 component around the top-left part, signifying hands (hands-on learning); 2) a (“cover”) over (“child”), representing the cover of a building or school, i.e. the child learns in a roofed place. Shuowen regards 𦥑 as the phonetic component in the character, which may be true according to some Old Chinese reconstructions such as that of Pan Wuyun's, though probably not others. See for more. The earliest structure may suggest its relationship with , with reconstruction *rug.

Etymology[edit]

May be an endopassive derivation of (OC *kruːɡs, *kruːɡ, “to awake, get insight”).

Pronunciation[edit]


Note:
  • xué - major reading (colloquial and literary);
  • xiáo - rare, very colloquial or dialectal, used in xiangsheng.
  • Cantonese
  • Hakka
  • Jin
  • Min Bei
  • Note:
    • ò̤ - vernacular;
    • hă - literary.
  • Min Dong
  • Note:
    • ŏ̤h - vernacular;
    • hŏk - literary.
  • Min Nan
  • Note:
    • o̍h - vernacular;
    • ha̍k - literary.
    Note:
    • oh8 - vernacular;
    • hag8 - literary.
  • Wu
  • Note:
    • 5hhoq - vernacular;
    • 5hhiaq - literary.

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /ɕyɛ³⁵/
    Harbin /ɕiau²⁴/
    /ɕyɛ²⁴/
    Tianjin /ɕiɑu⁴⁵/
    /ɕye⁴⁵/
    Jinan /ɕyə⁴²/
    Qingdao /ɕyə⁴²/
    Zhengzhou /ɕyo⁴²/
    Xi'an /ɕyo²⁴/
    Xining /ɕyu²⁴/
    Yinchuan /ɕye¹³/
    /ɕye⁵³/
    Lanzhou /ɕyə⁵³/
    Ürümqi /ɕyɤ⁵¹/
    Wuhan /ɕio²¹³/
    Chengdu /ɕyo³¹/
    Guiyang /ɕio²¹/
    Kunming /ɕio³¹/
    Nanjing /ɕioʔ⁵/
    Hefei /ɕyɐʔ⁵/
    Jin Taiyuan /ɕyəʔ⁵⁴/
    Pingyao /ɕiʌʔ⁵³/
    Hohhot /ɕyaʔ⁴³/ ~习
    /ɕiɔ³¹/ ~话
    Wu Shanghai /ɦoʔ¹/
    /ɦiaʔ¹/
    Suzhou /ɦioʔ³/
    /ɦoʔ³/
    Hangzhou /ɦiɑʔ²/
    Wenzhou /ɦo²¹³/
    Hui Shexian /ɕiɔ²²/
    /xɔ²²/
    Tunxi /xo¹¹/
    Xiang Changsha /ɕio²⁴/
    Xiangtan /ɕio²⁴/
    Gan Nanchang /hɔʔ²/
    Hakka Meixian /hok̚⁵/
    Taoyuan /hok̚⁵⁵/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /hɔk̚²/
    Nanning /hɔk̚²²/
    Hong Kong /hɔk̚²/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /hak̚⁵/
    /oʔ⁵/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /oʔ⁵/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /xa²⁴/
    /ɔ⁴²/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /hak̚⁵/
    /oʔ⁵/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /hiɔk̚⁵/
    /o³³/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (33)
    Final () (10)
    Tone (調) Checked (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () II
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ɦˠʌk̚/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ɦᵚɔk̚/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ɣɔk̚/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ɦaɨwk̚/
    Li
    Rong
    /ɣɔk̚/
    Wang
    Li
    /ɣɔk̚/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ɣɔk̚/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    xué
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    xué
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ hæwk ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*m-kˤruk/
    English study; imitate

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 14079
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    1
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*ɡruːɡ/
    Notes

    Definitions[edit]

    1. to comprehend; to realise; to understand
    2. (transitive) to learn; to study
      /   ―  xué  ―  to study; to learn
      打算攝影 / 打算摄影  ―  Wǒ dǎsuàn xué shèyǐng.  ―  I plan to learn photography.
    3. to imitate; to copy; to mimic
      鸚鵡 / 鹦鹉  ―  Yīngwǔ xué rén yǔ.  ―  Parrots imitate human speech.
    4. school
    5. learning; knowledge
    6. theory; doctrine
    7. subject; branch of learning; science; -ology
      /   ―  huàxué  ―  chemistry
      生物 / 生物  ―  shēngwùxué  ―  biology

    Synonyms[edit]

    Compounds[edit]


    Japanese[edit]

    Shinjitai

    Kyūjitai

    Kanji[edit]

    (uncommon “Hyōgai” kanjikyūjitai kanji, shinjitai form )

    1. Learning, student, study
    2. School, education
    3. Subject, field of study, science
    4. Understanding, knowledge

    Readings[edit]

    Compounds[edit]


    Korean[edit]

    Hanja[edit]

    (eumhun 배울 (bae-ul hak))

    1. learn, take lessons, be taught, study

    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    (học)

    1. to learn, to study

    Compounds[edit]

    Usage notes[edit]

    • Chữ Nôm. The modern Vietnamese equivalent is học.
    • This is the regular form of the character. The common form is .

    References[edit]