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Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
入-order.gif

Han character[edit]

(radical 11 +0, 2 strokes, cangjie input 人竹 (OH), four-corner 80000)

Usage notes[edit]

In print, 入 may have symmetric legs, and look like with a hook at top left. However in handwriting, to distinguish from 人, the left leg will be shorter, the shape looking like λ (lambda); in 人 the right leg is shorter.

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 125, character 32
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 1415
  • Dae Jaweon: page 266, character 18
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 102, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+5165

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Bamboo and silk script Large seal script Small seal script
入-oracle.svg 入-bronze.svg 入-silk.svg 入-bigseal.svg 入-seal.svg





References:

Mostly from Richard Sears' Chinese Etymology site (authorisation),
which in turn draws data from various collections of ancient forms of Chinese characters, including:

  • Shuowen Jiezi (small seal),
  • Jinwen Bian (bronze inscriptions),
  • Liushutong (large seal) and
  • Xu Jiaguwen Bian (oracle bone script).

Ideogram (指事) - an arrowhead indicating "to enter".

Compare (rén).

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *nup ~ nip. Cognate with Tibetan ནུབ་པ ‎(nub pa, to fall (gradually), sink, to set; to decay, to decline) and Burmese နိပ် ‎(nip, to decline (e.g. price); to be suppressed, to settle, to be quelled).

Chinese characters belonging to the same word family include:

  • (OC *nuːb, “to make enter”)
  • (OC *nuːbs, “inside”)
  • (OC *nuːb, “reins on the inside of the horse”)
  • (OC *nuːms, *nuːb, *rnoːd, “to marry (a girl)”)
  • and potentially Cantonese (laap3, “to bring together, to collect”)

The regular Mandarin pronunciation as predicted from Middle Chinese is . The irregular sound change is for taboo reasons - to avoid homophony with its derived vulgar meaning "to enter > to have sexual intercourse", nowadays represented by ().

Pronunciation[edit]



  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /ʐu⁵¹/
Harbin /lu⁵³/
/ʐu⁵³/
Tianjin /iu⁵³/
/ʐu⁵³/
Jinan /lu²¹/
Qingdao /y⁴²/
Zhengzhou /ʐu²⁴/
Xi'an /vu²¹/
Xining /v̩⁴⁴/
Yinchuan /ʐu¹³/
Lanzhou /vu¹³/
Ürümqi /ʐu²¹³/
/vu²¹³/
Wuhan /y²¹³/
Chengdu /zu³¹/
Guiyang /zu²¹/
Kunming /ʐu³¹/
Nanjing /ʐuʔ⁵/
Hefei /ʐuəʔ⁵/
Jin Taiyuan /zuəʔ²/ 出~
/zəʔ²/ ~怪
Pingyao /zuʌʔ⁵³/
/zz̩ʷ⁵³/
Hohhot /ʐuəʔ⁴³/
Wu Shanghai /zəʔ¹/
Suzhou /zəʔ³/
Hangzhou /zəʔ²/
Wenzhou /zai²¹³/
Hui Shexian /y²²/
Tunxi /ie¹¹/
Xiang Changsha /y²⁴/
Xiangtan /y²⁴/
Gan Nanchang /lɨʔ⁵/
Hakka Meixian /ŋip̚⁵/
Taoyuan /ŋip̚⁵⁵/
Cantonese Guangzhou /jɐp̚²/
Nanning /jɐp̚²²/
Hong Kong /jɐp̚²/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /lip̚⁵/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /niʔ⁵/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /ni⁴²/
Shantou (Min Nan) /zip̚⁵/
Haikou (Min Nan) /zip̚⁵/
/zip̚³/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (38)
Final () (141)
Tone (調) Checked (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ȵiɪp̚/
Pan
Wuyun
/ȵip̚/
Shao
Rongfen
/ȵʑjep̚/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ȵip̚/
Li
Rong
/ȵiəp̚/
Wang
Li
/ȵʑĭĕp̚/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ȵʑi̯əp̚/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle
Chinese
‹ nyip ›
Old
Chinese
/*n[u]p/
English enter

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 10885
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
3
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*njub/

Definitions[edit]

  1. to enter, to go into
    Synonyms: (jìn)
    Antonyms: (chū)
  2. to join, to become a member of
      ―  jiā  ―  to join
  3. to accept, to admit
  4. to pay
  5. income
      ―  shōu  ―  income
    /   ―  suì  ―  annual income
  6. to confirm, to agree
  7. to conform (to)
  8. to arrive (at); to attain
  9. to go to imperial court
  10. to invade
  11. (telephony) to get through
    Synonyms: (tōng)
  12. (Cantonese) inside
  13. (dialectal Mandarin, dialectal Wu) to fuck, to have sexual intercourse
  14. Short for 入聲入声 (rùshēng, “the checked tone”).

Compounds[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 1 “Kyōiku” kanji)

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Related terms[edit]

Counter[edit]

‎(hiragana しお, romaji -shio)

  1. (archaic) counter for soakings (of fabric in a dye)

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

‎(ip)
Eumhun:

  • Sound (hangeul):  (revised: ip, McCune-Reischauer: ip)
  • Name (hangeul):  (revised: deul)
  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(nhập, nhạp, nhép, nhẹp)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

References[edit]