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Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
入-order.gif

Han character[edit]

(radical 11 +0, 2 strokes, cangjie input 人竹 (OH), four-corner 80000)

Usage notes[edit]

In print, 入 may have symmetric legs, and look like with a hook at top left. However in handwriting, to distinguish from 人, the left leg will be shorter, the shape looking like λ (lambda); in 人 the right leg is shorter.

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 125, character 32
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 1415
  • Dae Jaweon: page 266, character 18
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 102, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+5165

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Bamboo and silk script Large seal script Small seal script
入-oracle.svg 入-bronze.svg 入-silk.svg 入-bigseal.svg 入-seal.svg





References:

Mostly from Richard Sears' Chinese Etymology site (authorisation),
which in turn draws data from various collections of ancient forms of Chinese characters, including:

  • Shuowen Jiezi (small seal),
  • Jinwen Bian (bronze inscriptions),
  • Liushutong (large seal) and
  • Xu Jiaguwen Bian (oracle bone script).

Ideogram (指事) - an arrowhead indicating "to enter".

Compare (rén).

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *nup ~ nip. Cognate with Tibetan ནུབ་པ ‎(nub pa, to fall (gradually), sink, to set; to decay, to decline) and Burmese နိပ် ‎(nip, to decline (e.g. price); to be suppressed, to settle, to be quelled).

Chinese characters belonging to the same word family include:

  • (OC *nuːb, “to make enter”)
  • (OC *nuːbs, “inside”)
  • (OC *nuːb, “reins on the inside of the horse”)
  • (OC *nuːms, *nuːb, *rnoːd, “to marry (a girl)”)
  • and potentially Cantonese (laap3, “to bring together, to collect”)

The regular Mandarin pronunciation as predicted from Middle Chinese is . The irregular sound change is for taboo reasons - to avoid homophony with its derived vulgar meaning "to enter > to have sexual intercourse", nowadays represented by ().

Pronunciation[edit]



  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /ʐu⁵¹/
Harbin /lu⁵³/
/ʐu⁵³/
Tianjin /iu⁵³/
/ʐu⁵³/
Jinan /lu²¹/
Qingdao /y⁴²/
Zhengzhou /ʐu²⁴/
Xi'an /vu²¹/
Xining /v̩⁴⁴/
Yinchuan /ʐu¹³/
Lanzhou /vu¹³/
Ürümqi /ʐu²¹³/
/vu²¹³/
Wuhan /y²¹³/
Chengdu /zu³¹/
Guiyang /zu²¹/
Kunming /ʐu³¹/
Nanjing /ʐuʔ⁵/
Hefei /ʐuəʔ⁵/
Jin Taiyuan /zuəʔ²/ 出~
/zəʔ²/ ~怪
Pingyao /zuʌʔ⁵³/
/zz̩ʷ⁵³/
Hohhot /ʐuəʔ⁴³/
Wu Shanghai /zəʔ¹/
Suzhou /zəʔ³/
Hangzhou /zəʔ²/
Wenzhou /zai²¹³/
Hui Shexian /y²²/
Tunxi /ie¹¹/
Xiang Changsha /y²⁴/
Xiangtan /y²⁴/
Gan Nanchang /lɨʔ⁵/
Hakka Meixian /ŋip̚⁵/
Taoyuan /ŋip̚⁵⁵/
Cantonese Guangzhou /jɐp̚²/
Nanning /jɐp̚²²/
Hong Kong /jɐp̚²/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /lip̚⁵/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /niʔ⁵/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /ni⁴²/
Shantou (Min Nan) /zip̚⁵/
Haikou (Min Nan) /zip̚⁵/
/zip̚³/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (38)
Final () (141)
Tone (調) Checked (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ȵiɪp̚/
Pan
Wuyun
/ȵip̚/
Shao
Rongfen
/ȵʑjep̚/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ȵip̚/
Li
Rong
/ȵiəp̚/
Wang
Li
/ȵʑĭĕp̚/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ȵʑi̯əp̚/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle
Chinese
‹ nyip ›
Old
Chinese
/*n[u]p/
English enter

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 10885
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
3
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*njub/

Definitions[edit]

  1. to enter, to go into
    Synonyms: (jìn)
    Antonyms: (chū)
  2. to join, to become a member of
      ―  jiā  ―  to join
  3. to accept, to admit
  4. to pay
  5. income
      ―  shōu  ―  income
    /   ―  suì  ―  annual income
  6. to confirm, to agree
  7. to conform (to)
  8. to arrive (at); to attain
  9. to go to imperial court
  10. to invade
  11. (Cantonese) inside
  12. (dialectal Mandarin, dialectal Wu) to fuck, to have sexual intercourse
  13. Short for 入聲入声 (rùshēng, “the checked tone”).

Compounds[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 1 “Kyōiku” kanji)

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Related terms[edit]

Counter[edit]

‎(hiragana しお, romaji -shio)

  1. (archaic) counter for soakings (of fabric in a dye)

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

‎(ip)
Eumhun:

  • Sound (hangeul):  (revised: ip, McCune-Reischauer: ip)
  • Name (hangeul):  (revised: deul)
  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(nhập, nhạp, nhép, nhẹp)

  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.

References[edit]