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U+9670, 陰
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-9670

[U+966F]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+9671]

Translingual[edit]

Han character[edit]

(Kangxi radical 170, +8, 11 strokes, cangjie input 弓中人戈戈 (NLOII), four-corner 78231, composition)

Derived characters[edit]

Related characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 1353, character 6
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 41691
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1855, character 12
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 6, page 4138, character 5
  • Unihan data for U+9670

Chinese[edit]

trad.
simp.
alternative forms

Glyph origin[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *r(u/i)m (dark; shade; dusk; twilight); compare Tibetan རུམ (rum, darkness), Jingpho rim (to be dusk) (Benedict, 1972; Bodman, 1980; STEDT).

Schuessler (2007) compares it instead to Burmese အုံ့ (um., to become overcast), Adi mugyum (shade; shadow), Lepcha [script needed] (so-dyŭm, shade).

Pronunciation[edit]


Note:
  • im - literary;
  • iam - vernacular (limited, e.g. 半陰陽).
  • Wu
  • Xiang

  • Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (34)
    Final () (140)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () Chongniu III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ʔˠiɪm/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ʔᵚim/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ʔiem/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ʔjim/
    Li
    Rong
    /ʔjəm/
    Wang
    Li
    /ĭĕm/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ʔi̯əm/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    yīn
    Expected
    Cantonese
    Reflex
    jam1
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    yīn
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ ʔim ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*q(r)um/
    English dark

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 6623
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    1
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*qrɯm/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. cloudy; overcast; gloomy
      /   ―  yīn'àn  ―  dark; gloomy
      /   ―  Tiān yīn le.  ―  The sky is overcast.
      /   ―  yīn zhuǎn qíng  ―  cloudy to fine
    2. hidden; secret
      陽奉 / 阳奉  ―  yángfèngyīnwéi  ―  to overtly agree but covertly oppose; to comply in public but oppose in private
    3. negative
      /   ―  yīn  ―  cathode
      離子 / 离子  ―  yīnlízǐ  ―  anion; negative ion
    4. the Moon
      /   ―  tàiyīn  ―  moon
      /   ―  yīn  ―  lunar calendar
    5. shade; shadow
      /   ―  shùyīn  ―  shade of a tree
      /   ―  bèiyīn  ―  to be in the shade
    6. north of a mountain or south of a river
      /   ―  shānyīn  ―  northern side of a mountain
      /   ―  Jiāngyīn  ―  Jiangyin (a county situated on the south side of the Yangtze River)
    7. back side
      /   ―  bēiyīn  ―  posterior of a stele
    8. of the nether world; of ghosts
      /   ―  yīnjiān  ―  afterworld; netherworld
      相隔 / 相隔  ―  yīnyáng xiànggé  ―  (please add an English translation of this example)
    9. (philosophy) "female" principle; yin in yin-yang
    10. in intaglio
      /   ―  yīnwén  ―  intagliated characters or designs
    11. treacherous; deceitful; cheating
      /   ―  yīnxiǎn  ―  treacherous
      玩兒 [MSC, trad.]
      玩儿 [MSC, simp.]
      Hǎo wa, nǐ gǎn gēn wǒ wánr yīn de! [Pinyin]
      Fine, you dare play dirty with me!
    12. (dialectal) to deceive; to trick; to trap
      今兒個 [dialectal Mandarin, trad.]
      今儿个 [dialectal Mandarin, simp.]
      Wǒ jīnrge ràng rén gěi yīn le. [Pinyin]
      Today I have been tricked by someone.
    13. (Chinese phonetics, of a syllable) open; not having a consonant coda
    14. (Cantonese) bangs; fringe
      alt. forms: 𩬎
    15. genitalia (of humans)
      /   ―  yīndào  ―  vagina
      /   ―  wàiyīn  ―  vulva
    16. A surname​.

    Antonyms[edit]

    See also[edit]

    The tones (of Chinese) in Chinese · 聲調 (layout · text)
    平仄
    平聲

    仄聲
    平上去入
    四聲
    古四聲

    平聲

    上聲

    去聲

    入聲
    標調方法
    標調法
    四角標調法 ꜀◌ ꜂◌ ◌꜄ ◌꜆
    [Term?] ◌〪 ◌〫 ◌〬 ◌〭
    [Term?] ◌〮 ◌〯
    -X -H -p -t -k (-ʔ)
    四聲八調 陰平 陽平 陰上 陽上 陰去 陽去 陰入 陽入
    標調方法
    標調法
    四角標調法 ꜀◌ ꜁◌ ꜂◌ ꜃◌ ◌꜄ ◌꜅ ◌꜆ ◌꜇
    The tones (of Standard Mandarin) in Chinese · 聲調 (layout · text)
    四聲 陰平
    第一聲
    陽平
    第二聲
    上聲
    第三聲
    去聲
    第四聲
    輕聲

    Compounds[edit]

    Descendants[edit]

    • Proto-Tai: *rɤmᴮ (shade)
      • Thai: ร่ม (rôm, shade, umbrella, parachute)

    References[edit]


    Japanese[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (common “Jōyō” kanji)

    1. hidden
    2. dark
    3. negative

    Readings[edit]

    Compounds[edit]

    Synonyms[edit]

    Etymology 1[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    かげ
    Grade: S
    kun’yomi

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (かげ) (kage

    1. shadow, shade
      ()(かげ)
      ki no kage
      a shadow of a tree
    2. hidden side
      (かげ)(うご)(まわ)
      kage de ugoki mawaru
      maneuver in a hidden side
      (かげ)()(はい)(しゃ)
      kage no shihaisha
      a hidden ruler
    See also[edit]

    Etymology 2[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    いん
    Grade: S
    kun’yomi

    From Middle Chinese (ʔˠiɪm).

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Affix[edit]

    (いん) (in

    1. shade; shadow
    2. shadow of the sun; (figuratively) time
    3. secret; unknown
    4. genitalia
    5. negative; “female”; quiescent; minus
    6. (philosophy) yin
    7. north side of mountain; south side of water
    8. the moon

    Noun[edit]

    (いん) (in

    1. (philosophy) yin
    2. (literary) shady area; (陰に) in the shade; secretly; in private

    Etymology 3[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    ほと
    Grade: S
    kun’yomi

    /hoto2/: *[potə] → [ɸoto] → [hoto]. As indicated in the Wamyōshō citation, /to2/ may be related to (/to1/, place, location), but the phonological difference can not be explained. Perhaps related to Korean 보지 (poji, vagina).

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (ほと) (hoto

    1. female genitalia
      • 712, Kojiki
        因生此子、美蕃登此三字以音。見灸而病臥在。
        (please add an English translation of this usage example)
      • 712, Kojiki
        逆剥天斑馬剥而、所墮入時、天服織女見驚而、於梭衝陰上而死。訓陰上云富登
        (please add an English translation of this usage example)
    2. (by extension) male genitalia
      Synonyms: see Thesaurus:陰茎
      • 931938, Minamoto no Shitagō, Wamyō Ruijushō (book 2, page 44-45)
        陰 釋名云、陰、今案玉茎玉門等通稱也 [...] 原書無其字按神代紀、「陰訓保止、保是含包之言、即所謂在陰翳之義、止、處也」 [...]
        (please add an English translation of this usage example)
    Synonyms[edit]

    References[edit]

    1. 1.0 1.1 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    2. 2.0 2.1 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN

    Korean[edit]

    Alternative forms[edit]

    Etymology 1[edit]

    From Middle Chinese (MC ʔˠiɪm).

    Recorded as Middle Korean /ᅙᅳᆷ (Yale: qum) in Dongguk Jeongun (東國正韻 / 동국정운), 1448.

    Recorded as Middle Korean / (um) (Yale: um) in Hunmong Jahoe (訓蒙字會 / 훈몽자회), 1527.

    Hanja[edit]

    Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

    Wikisource

    (eumhun 그늘 (geuneul eum))

    1. Hanja form? of (dark; shady).
    Compounds[edit]

    Etymology 2[edit]

    Related to Middle Chinese (MC ʔʌmH, “dark; gloomy”).

    Hanja[edit]

    (eumhun 침묵할 (chimmukhal am))

    1. (archaic) Hanja form? of (to be silent).
    Synonyms[edit]

    References[edit]

    • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [2]

    Okinawan[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (hiragana ほー, romaji )

    Compounds[edit]

    • 陰目 (ほーみー, hōmī, vagina)

    Etymology[edit]

    Cognate with Japanese (hoto).

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana ほー, romaji )

    1. female genitalia

    References[edit]

    • 沖縄語辞典 (Okinawago Jiten, “Okinawan Dictionary”)[3], 1963

    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    : Hán Nôm readings: âm, ơm

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    Compounds[edit]