Reconstruction:Proto-Sino-Tibetan/nup ~ nip

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This Proto-Sino-Tibetan entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.



  • Proto-Sino-Tibetan: ?
    • Proto-Tibeto-Burman: *nup ~ *nip = *nuːp ~ *ni[ː]p (Matisoff, STEDT); *nuːp~ni[ː]p (Chou, 1972); *nup ⪤ nip (Benedict, 1972)


*nup ~ nip

  1. to sink
  2. (of sun, moon) to set
  3. to enter


  • Old Chinese:
    /*nəp/ (B-S), /*njub/ (ZS) ("to enter; to set (e.g. sun)")
    /*nˁəp/ (B-S), /*nuːb/ (ZS) ("to take in, to let in; to receive")
    /*nˁəp-s/ (B-S), /*nuːbs/ (ZS) ("inside, inner part")
    ( in the oracle bone script) 入-oracle.svg
    • Middle Chinese: (ȵiɪp), (nʌp), (nuʌiH)

         Japanese:   (にゅう, ​nyū)
            Korean:   (, ip)
            Vietnamese:  nhập

         Japanese:   (のう, ​)
            Korean:   (, nap)
            Vietnamese:  nạp

         Japanese:   (ない, ​nai)
            Korean:   (, nae)
            Vietnamese:  nội

         Thai:  ใน (nai, inside, internal, in ...)
            Lao:  ໃນ (nai, inside, internal, in ...)

      • Modern Mandarin
        • Beijing: (, /ʐu⁵¹/), (, /na⁵¹/), (nèi, /neɪ̯⁵¹/)
          (Note: - irregular development from MC, perhaps due to taboo reasons, i.e. to disambiguate from the figurative sense "to fuck" of the same character, which is now represented by .)
  • Himalayish
    • Tibeto-Kanauri
      • Bodic
        • Tibetan
  • Lolo-Burmese-Naxi
    • Lolo-Burmese
      • Burmish
        • Written Burmese: နိပ် (nip, to decline (e.g. price); to be suppressed, to settle, to be quelled), နှိပ် (hnip, to press; to massage; to stamp, to seal)

See also[edit]