Wiktionary:About Proto-Sino-Tibetan

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Proto-Sino-Tibetan (PST) is the reconstructed form for the Sino-Tibetan languages, the second largest established language family in the world by the number of speakers. Chinese, Tibetan and Burmese are three of the earliest documented among all the descendants and arguably the three most important branches of this family. The reconstruction of Proto-Sino-Tibetan and its descendant proto-languages (Proto-Tibeto-Burman (PTB), Old Chinese (OC), etc.) is an area of active research. Major references include Benedict (1972), Coblin (1986), and Matisoff (2003).

Wiktionary follows chiefly the reconstructions in the Sino-Tibetan Etymological Dictionary and Thesaurus (STEDT) database, a project headed by Prof. James Matisoff, which in turn draws a large proportion of its content from Matisoff (2003). Minor conversions exist between the forms in STEDT and those in Wiktionary, the most important being IPA-notating all proto-forms in Wiktionary (e.g. STEDT 'y' = Wiktionary 'j'). In the absence of a hitherto-proposed reasonable PST reconstruction for an etymon, the "Proto-Tibeto-Burman" (PTB) forms in STEDT are temporarily taken as equivalent to the PST forms, as the Old Chinese form is often considered when postulating the PTB forms, for example PTB *d-kʷəj-n.

Words[edit]

See Category:Proto-Sino-Tibetan roots.

Phylogeny[edit]

* Old Chinese
** Middle Chinese
*** Modern Mandarin
**** Beijing
*** Jin
*** Wu
**** Shanghai
*** Xiang
*** Gan
*** Hakka
*** Cantonese
**** Guangzhou
** Min
*** Amoy
* Kamarupan
** North Assam
*** Tani
*** Deng
** Kuki-Chin
*** Peripheral Chin
**** Northern Chin
**** Southern Plains Chin
*** Central Chin
*** Maraic
*** "Old Kuki"
** "Naga"
*** Northern Naga
*** Central Naga (Ao Group)
*** Angami-Pochuri Group
*** Zeme Group
*** Tangkhulic
** Meithei
** Mikir
** Mru
** Bodo-Garo = Barish
** Chairel
* Himalayish
** Tibeto-Kanauri
*** Western Himalayish
*** Bodic
**** Tibetan
***** Written Tibetan
*** Lepcha
*** Tamangic
*** Dhimal
** Newar
** Mahakiranti
*** Kham-Magar-Chepang-Sunwar
*** Kiranti
**** Eastern Kiranti = Rai
**** Western Kiranti
* Tangut-Qiang
** Tangut
** Qiangic
** rGyalrongic
* Jingpho-Nung-Asakian
** Jingpho
** Nungic
** Asakian
* Tujia
* Lolo-Burmese-Naxi
** Lolo-Burmese
*** Burmish
**** Written Burmese
*** Loloish
**** Northern Loloish
**** Central Loloish
**** Southern Loloish
** Naxi
* Karenic
* Bai

Other resources[edit]

Old Chinese[edit]

Two reconstructions of Old Chinese should be listed: Baxter-Sagart (2011) (abbrev. B-S) and Zhengzhang (2003) (abbrev. ZS), when these exist.

Reconstruction by Baxter-Sagart (2011)[edit]

Base consonants

Labial Alveolar Palatal Velar Uvular Laryngeal
plain phary. plain phary. plain plain plain labial. phary. phary. labial. plain plain labial. phary. phary. labial. plain phary. phary. labial.
Stop Voiceless unaspirated p t k kʷˤ q qʷˤ ʔ ʔˤ (*)ʔʷˤ
Voiceless aspirated pʰˤ tʰˤ kʷʰ kʰˤ kʷʰˤ qʷʰ qʰˤ qʷʰˤ
Voiced b d g gʷˤ ɢ ɢʷ ɢˤ ɢʷˤ
Affricate Voiceless unaspirated t͡s t͡sˤ
Voiceless aspirated t͡sʰ t͡sʰˤ
Voiced d͡z d͡zˤ
Fricative Voiceless s
Nasal Voiceless m̥ˤ n̥ˤ ŋ̊ ŋ̊ʷ ŋ̊ˤ ŋ̊ʷˤ
Voiced m n ŋ ŋʷ ŋˤ ŋʷˤ
Approximant Voiceless l̥ˤ
Voiced l j w
Trill Voiceless r̥ˤ
Voiced r

Vowels

front central back
close i ə u
open e a o

Reconstruction by Zhengzhang (2003)[edit]

Initials Prefixes Glides Vowels Codas
k g ŋ ŋ̊ʰ
q, ʔ qʰ, h ɢ, ɦ
p b m m̥ʰ
t d n n̥ʰ l l̥ʰ
s sʰ, t͡sʰ z, d͡z r r̥ʰ
  • s-
  • ʔ-, h-, ɦ-
  • m-, n-, ŋ-
  • r-
  • p-, k-, t-
  • -j-
  • -w-
  • -r-
  • -l-
  • -r'- (plosivised)
  • -l'- (plosivised)
front central back
close i ɯ u
open e a o
  • -m, -n, -ŋ, -l/-i, -w, -ø
  • -b, -d, -g, -wɢ/-ug, -q/-ʔ, -s/-h

Written Tibetan[edit]

Allowed initials in Written Tibetan and their pronunciations in Modern Lhasa dialect:

BasePrefix(es) Ø b- d- g- m- '- s- l- r- bs- bl- br-
k-
/k/
(k-)
/k/
bk-
/k/
dk-
/k/
sk-
/k/
lk-
/k/
rk-
/k/
bsk-
/k/
brk-
/k/
(kw-)
(ky-)
/c/
bky-
/c/
dky-
/c/
sky-
/c/
rky-
/c/
bsky-
/c/
brky-
/c/
(kr-)
/ʈʂ/
bkr-
/ʈʂ/
dkr-
/ʈʂ/
skr-
/ʈʂ/
bskr-
/ʈʂ/
kl-
/l/
bkl-
/l/
kh-
/kʰ/
kh-
/kʰ/
mkh-
/kʰ/
'kh-
/kʰ/
khw-
/kʰ/
khy-
/cʰ/
mkhy-
/cʰ/
'khy-
/cʰ/
khr-
/ʈʂʰ/
mkhr-
/ʈʂʰ/
'khr-
/ʈʂʰ/
g-
/ɡ/
g-
/kʰ/
bg-
/k/
dg-
/k/
mg-
/ŋk/
'g-
/ŋk/
sg-
/k/
lg-
/k/
rg-
/k/
bsg-
/k/
brg-
/k/
gw-
gy-
/cʰ/
bgy-
/c/
dgy-
/c/
mgy-
/ɲc/
'gy-
/ɲc/
sgy-
/c/
lgy- rgy-
/c/
bsgy-
/c/
brgy-
/c/
gr-
/ʈʂʰ/
bgr-
/ʈʂ/
dgr-
/ʈʂ/
mgr-
/ɳʈʂ/
'gr-
/ɳʈʂ/
sgr-
/ʈʂ/
lgr- bsgr-
/ʈʂ/
grw-
/ʈʂʰ/
gl-
/l/
ng-
/ŋ/
ng-
/ŋ/
dng-
/ŋ/
mng-
/ŋ/
sng-
/ŋ/
lng-
/ŋ/
rng-
/ŋ/
bsng-
/ŋ/
brng-
/ŋ/
c-
/t͡ɕ/
(c-)
/t͡ɕ/
bc-
/t͡ɕ/
gc-
/t͡ɕ/
lc-
/t͡ɕ/
ch-
/t͡ɕʰ/
ch-
/t͡ɕʰ/
mch-
/t͡ɕʰ/
'ch-
/t͡ɕʰ/
j-
/d͡ʑ/
j-
/t͡ɕʰ/
mj-
/ɲt͡ɕ/
'j-
/ɲt͡ɕ/
lj-
/ɲt͡ɕ/
rj-
/t͡ɕ/
brj-
/ɲt͡ɕ/
ny-
/ȵ/
ny-
/ȵ/
gny-
/ȵ/
mny-
/ȵ/
sny-
/ȵ/
rny-
/ȵ/
bsny-
/ȵ/
brny-
/ȵ/
nyw-
/ȵ/
t-
/t/
(t-)
/t/
bt-
/t/
gt-
/t/
st-
/t/
lt-
/t/
rt-
/t/
bst-
/t/
blt-
/t/
brt-
/t/
tr-
/ʈʂ/
th-
/tʰ/
th-
/tʰ/
mth-
/tʰ/
'th-
/tʰ/
d-
/d/
d-
/tʰ/
bd-
/t/
gd-
/t/
md-
/nt/
'd-
/nt/
sd-
/t/
ld-
/nt/
rd-
/t/
bsd-
/t/
bld-
/t/
brd-
/t/
dw-
/t/
dr-
/ʈʂ/
'dr-
/ɳʈʂ/
n-
/n/
n-
/n/
gn-
/n/
mn-
/n/
sn-
/n/
rn-
/n/
bsn-
/n/
brn-
/n/
(nr-) snr-
p-
/p/
(p-)
/p/
dp-
/p/
sp-
/p/
lp-
/p/
py- dpy-
/t͡ɕ/
spy-
/t͡ɕ/
(pr-)
/ʈʂ/
dpr-
/ʈʂ/
spr-
/ʈʂ/
ph-
/pʰ/
ph-
/pʰ/
'ph-
/pʰ/
phy-
/t͡ɕʰ/
'phy-
/t͡ɕʰ/
phyw-
/t͡ɕʰ/
phr-
/ʈʂʰ/
'phr-
/ʈʂʰ/
b-
/b/
b-
/pʰ/
db-
/ˀw/
'b-
/mp/
sb-
/p/
lb-
/mp/
rb-
/p/
by-
/t͡ɕʰ/
dby-
/j/
'by-
/ɲt͡ɕ/
sby-
/t͡ɕ/
br-
/ʈʂ/
dbr-
/r/
'br-
/ɳʈʂ/
sbr-
/p/ʈʂ/
bl-
/l/
m-
/m/
m-
/m/
dm-
/m/
sm-
/m/
rm-
/m/
(mr-) smr-
/m/
my-
/ȵ/
dmy-
/ȵ/
smy-
/ȵ/
rmy-
/ȵ/
ts-
/t͡s/
(ts-)
/t͡s/
bts-
/t͡s/
gts-
/t͡s/
sts-
/t͡s/
rts-
/t͡s/
bsts-
/t͡s/
brts-
/t͡s/
tsw- rtsw-
/t͡s/
tsh-
/t͡sʰ/
tsh-
/t͡sʰ/
mtsh-
/t͡sʰ/
'tsh-
/t͡sʰ/
tshw-
/t͡sʰ/
dz-
/d͡z/
(dz-)
/t͡sʰ/
mdz-
/nts/
'dz-
/nts/
rdz-
/t͡s/
brdz-
/t͡s/
w-
/w/
(w-)
/w/
zh-
/ʑ/
zh-
/ɕ/
bzh-
/ɕ/
gzh-
/ɕ/
zhw-
/ɕ/
z-
/z/
z-
/s/
bz-
/s/
gz-
/s/
zl-
/nt/
bzl-
/nt/
'-
/ɦ/
'-
/ˀ/
y-
/j/
y-
/j/
g.y-
/j/
r-
/r/
r-
/r/
rw-
/r/
rl-
/l/
brl-
/l/
l-
/l/
l-
/l/
lw-
/l/
sh-
/ɕ/
sh-
/ɕ/
bsh-
/ɕ/
gsh-
/ɕ/
shw-
/ɕ/
s-
/s/
s-
/s/
bs-
/s/
gs-
/s/
sr-
/s/
bsr-
/ʈʂ/s/
sl-
/l/
bsl-
/l/
h-
/h/
h-
/h/
lh-
/ɬ/
hw-
/h/
hr-
/ʂ/

Written Burmese[edit]

See Wiktionary:Burmese transliteration.

Participants[edit]

See also[edit]