iris

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See also: Iris and íris

English[edit]

Wikipedia-logo.png Iris on Wikipedia.Wikipedia

Etymology[edit]

From Middle English, from Latin, from Ancient Greek ἶρις ‎(îris, rainbow), from Proto-Indo-European *wei-ro- ‎(a twist, thread, cord, wire), from Proto-Indo-European *wei- ‎(to turn, twist, weave, plait).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

A plant of the genus, Iris.
Illustration showing parts of the human eye, including the iris.

iris ‎(plural irises or iris or irides) (See Usage notes)

  1. (botany) A plant of the genus Iris, common in the northern hemisphere, and generally having attractive blooms (See Wikipedia-logo.png Iris (plant) on Wikipedia.Wikipedia:Iris (plant)).
    • 1907, Robert W. Chambers, chapter V, The Younger Set:
      Breezes blowing from beds of iris quickened her breath with their perfume; she saw the tufted lilacs sway in the wind, and the streamers of mauve-tinted wistaria swinging, all a-glisten with golden bees; she saw a crimson cardinal winging through the foliage, and amorous tanagers flashing like scarlet flames athwart the pines.
  2. (anatomy) The contractile membrane perforated by the pupil, which adjusts to control the amount of light reaching the retina, and which forms the colored portion of the eye (See Wikipedia-logo.png Iris (anatomy) on Wikipedia.Wikipedia:Iris (anatomy)).
  3. (photography, cinematography) A diaphragm used to regulate the size of a hole, especially as a way of controlling the amount of light reaching a lens.
  4. (poetic) A rainbow, or other colourful refraction of light.
  5. (electronics) A constricted opening in the path inside a waveguide, used to form a resonator.
  6. (zoology) The inner circle of an oscillated color spot.

Usage notes[edit]

For the part of the eye, the usual medical plural is irides.
For the flower both iris and irises are in common use.

Quotations[edit]

plural iris

1989
1996
2004
ME « 15th c. 16th c. 17th c. 18th c. 19th c. 20th c. 21st c.
  • 1989, Ann Lovejoy, The Year in Bloom [1]
    Is there anything more spectacular than the bearded iris in their short season?
  • 1996, Katherine Grace Endicott, Northern California Gardening [2]
    Tall bearded iris are in bloom now.
  • 2004, Diana Beresford-Kroeger, A Garden for Life [3]
    The bulbous iris are important because their early flowers provide a food source for bees and early flying insects.

plural irides

1843 1989 2001
ME « 15th c. 16th c. 17th c. 18th c. 19th c. 20th c. 21st c.
  • 1843, The Penny Cyclopaedia of the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge
    In colour the irides are straw-yellow, the pupils black; forehead, nape, and back, very dark bluish-black; [...]
  • 1989, Robert S Ridgely, The Birds of South America [4]
    As in the caciques, bills are sharply pointed and pale, while irides are usually pale blue.
  • 2001, John V Forrester et al., The Eye [5]
    Later in life brown irides are the result of heavily pigmented melanocytes within the stroma.

plural irises

1987
2000
2002
ME « 15th c. 16th c. 17th c. 18th c. 19th c. 20th c. 21st c.
  • 1987, Pamela Harper, Frederick McGourty, Perennials [6]
    Tall bearded irises are easy to grow but not always easy to grow well.
  • 2000, Kevin C Voughn, Louisiana Iris [7]
    Most iris lovers feel that Louisiana irises are now large enough.
  • 2002, John E Bryan, Bulbs [8]
    All these irises are sold as dry, dormant bulbs in fall.

Derived terms[edit]

Translations[edit]

See also[edit]

Verb[edit]

iris ‎(third-person singular simple present irises, present participle irising, simple past and past participle irised)

  1. (of an aperture, lens, or door) To open or close in the manner of an iris.

Dutch[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

iris c ‎(plural irissen, diminutive irisje n)

  1. iris

Synonyms[edit]


Esperanto[edit]

Verb[edit]

iris

  1. past of iri

French[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

iris m ‎(plural iris)

  1. iris

External links[edit]


Ido[edit]

Verb[edit]

iris

  1. past of irar

Indonesian[edit]

Noun[edit]

iris

  1. slice

Verb[edit]

mengiris

  1. to slice

Irish[edit]

Noun[edit]

iris f ‎(genitive singular irise, nominative plural irisí)

  1. magazine, journal
  2. gazette

Declension[edit]

Synonyms[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

Related terms[edit]

Mutation[edit]

Irish mutation
Radical Eclipsis with h-prothesis with t-prothesis
iris n-iris hiris t-iris
Note: Some of these forms may be hypothetical. Not every
possible mutated form of every word actually occurs.

Italian[edit]

Noun[edit]

iris m, f ‎(invariable)

  1. iris (flower)

Synonyms[edit]

Anagrams[edit]


Latin[edit]

Noun[edit]

īrīs

  1. dative plural of īra
  2. ablative plural of īra

Norwegian Bokmål[edit]

Norwegian Wikipedia has an article on:

Wikipedia no

Norwegian Wikipedia has an article on:

Wikipedia no

Etymology[edit]

From Ancient Greek ἶρις ‎(îris, rainbow)

Noun[edit]

iris m ‎(definite singular irisen, indefinite plural iriser, definite plural irisene)

  1. (botany) an iris (flower)
  2. (anatomy) an iris (part of the eye)

Synonyms[edit]

References[edit]


Norwegian Nynorsk[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Ancient Greek ἶρις ‎(îris, rainbow)

Noun[edit]

iris m ‎(definite singular irisen, indefinite plural irisar, definite plural irisane)

  1. (botany) an iris (flower)
  2. (anatomy) an iris (part of the eye)

Synonyms[edit]

References[edit]


Portuguese[edit]

Noun[edit]

iris f (plural iris)

  1. obsolete spelling of íris

Scottish Gaelic[edit]

Noun[edit]

iris f ‎(genitive singular irise, plural irisean)

  1. magazine, periodical

Synonyms[edit]


Spanish[edit]

Noun[edit]

iris m ‎(plural iris or iríses)

  1. (anatomy) iris

Derived terms[edit]