retina

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See also: Retina, retinä, and retiña

English[edit]

English Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia
Illustration showing parts of the human eye, including the retina.

Etymology[edit]

From Middle English rethina, borrowing from Medieval Latin rētīna (relating to a net, feminine), ellipsis of tunica rētīna (net-like tunic), used to describe the blood vessel system at the back of the eye. The phrase is attested in the 12th century in Guillelmus the abbot and Gerard of Cremona—the latter may have created this phrase as a translation for Arabic طَبَقَة شَبَكِيَّة(ṭabaqa šabakiyya) "net-like layer", which translates Ancient Greek ἀμφιβληστροειδής χῐτών (amphiblēstroeidḗs khitṓn).[1]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

retina (plural retinas or retinae or (obsolete) retinæ)

  1. (ophthalmology) The thin layer of cells at the back of the eyeball that contains rods and cones sensitive to light, which trigger nerve impulses that pass via the optic nerve to the brain, where a visual image is formed.

Derived terms[edit]

Related terms[edit]

Translations[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Douglas Harper (2001–2022), “retina”, in Online Etymology Dictionary.

Anagrams[edit]


Catalan[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Learned borrowing from Latin retina.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

retina m (plural retines)

  1. retina

Related terms[edit]

Further reading[edit]


Dutch[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Medieval Latin rētina, the diminutive form of Latin rēte (net), probably from Vulgar Latin tunica *retina (literally net-like tunic), used to describe the blood vessel system at the back of the eye.

Pronunciation[edit]

  • (file)
  • Hyphenation: re‧ti‧na

Noun[edit]

retina f or m (plural retina's, diminutive retinaatje n)

  1. retina
    Synonym: netvlies

Anagrams[edit]


Finnish[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /ˈretinɑ/, [ˈre̞t̪inɑ]
  • Rhymes: -etinɑ
  • Syllabification: re‧ti‧na

Noun[edit]

retina

  1. Synonym of verkkokalvo (retina)

Declension[edit]

Inflection of retina (Kotus type 13/katiska, no gradation)
nominative retina retinat
genitive retinan retinoiden
retinoitten
retinojen
partitive retinaa retinoita
retinoja
illative retinaan retinoihin
singular plural
nominative retina retinat
accusative nom. retina retinat
gen. retinan
genitive retinan retinoiden
retinoitten
retinojen
retinainrare
partitive retinaa retinoita
retinoja
inessive retinassa retinoissa
elative retinasta retinoista
illative retinaan retinoihin
adessive retinalla retinoilla
ablative retinalta retinoilta
allative retinalle retinoille
essive retinana retinoina
translative retinaksi retinoiksi
instructive retinoin
abessive retinatta retinoitta
comitative retinoineen
Possessive forms of retina (type katiska)
possessor singular plural
1st person retinani retinamme
2nd person retinasi retinanne
3rd person retinansa

Anagrams[edit]


Hungarian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Late Latin rētina, the diminutive form of Latin rēte (net).[1]

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): [ˈrɛtinɒ]
  • Hyphenation: re‧ti‧na
  • Rhymes: -nɒ

Noun[edit]

retina (plural retinák)

  1. (anatomy) retina (the thin layer of cells at the back of the eyeball where light is converted into neural signals sent to the brain)

Declension[edit]

Inflection (stem in long/high vowel, back harmony)
singular plural
nominative retina retinák
accusative retinát retinákat
dative retinának retináknak
instrumental retinával retinákkal
causal-final retináért retinákért
translative retinává retinákká
terminative retináig retinákig
essive-formal retinaként retinákként
essive-modal retinául
inessive retinában retinákban
superessive retinán retinákon
adessive retinánál retináknál
illative retinába retinákba
sublative retinára retinákra
allative retinához retinákhoz
elative retinából retinákból
delative retináról retinákról
ablative retinától retináktól
non-attributive
possessive - singular
retináé retináké
non-attributive
possessive - plural
retináéi retinákéi
Possessive forms of retina
possessor single possession multiple possessions
1st person sing. retinám retináim
2nd person sing. retinád retináid
3rd person sing. retinája retinái
1st person plural retinánk retináink
2nd person plural retinátok retináitok
3rd person plural retinájuk retináik

References[edit]

  1. ^ Tótfalusi, István. Idegenszó-tár: Idegen szavak értelmező és etimológiai szótára (’A Storehouse of Foreign Words: an explanatory and etymological dictionary of foreign words’). Budapest: Tinta Könyvkiadó, 2005. →ISBN

Further reading[edit]


Interlingua[edit]

Noun[edit]

retina (plural retinas)

  1. retina

Related terms[edit]


Italian[edit]

Italian Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia it

Etymology 1[edit]

The original sense (Etymology 2) of retina, but given a specific anatomical meaning.

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /ˈrɛ.ti.na/
  • Rhymes: -ɛtina
  • Hyphenation: rè‧ti‧na

Noun[edit]

retina f (plural retine)

  1. (anatomy) retina
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

rete +‎ -ina

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /reˈti.na/
  • Rhymes: -ina
  • Hyphenation: re‧tì‧na

Noun[edit]

retina f (plural retine)

  1. Diminutive of rete
    1. small net
    2. hairnet

Etymology 3[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /reˈti.na/
  • Rhymes: -ina
  • Hyphenation: re‧tì‧na

Verb[edit]

retina

  1. inflection of retinare:
    1. third-person singular present indicative
    2. second-person singular imperative

Anagrams[edit]


Latin[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Generally explained as from retineō (to hold back, retain, restrain) +‎ -a (agent noun suffix).[1][2]

Classical Latin had the term retināculum n, which occurred almost exclusively in the plural (retinācula (reins)). This plural may have been reinterpreted as a diminutive feminine singular, then undergoing back-formation to form a non-diminutive retina.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

retina f (genitive retinae); first declension

  1. (Early Medieval Latin) a rein (strap or rope attached to a bridle or bit, used to control an animal)
    • 10th century, anonymous, Chronicon Salernitanum 68, (example from DuCange):
      Apprehensaque equi Retina, celeriter eum Beneventum ducebat
      Having seized the horse's rein(s), he quickly rode it to Benevento.
Inflection[edit]

First-declension noun.

Case Singular Plural
Nominative retina retinae
Genitive retinae retinārum
Dative retinae retinīs
Accusative retinam retinās
Ablative retinā retinīs
Vocative retina retinae
Descendants[edit]

References[edit]

  1. 1.0 1.1 Etymology and history of “rêne”, in Trésor de la langue française informatisé [Digitized Treasury of the French Language], 2012.
  2. ^ Coromines, Joan; Pascual, José A. (1983), “rienda”, in Diccionario crítico etimológico castellano e hispánico (in Spanish), volume Ri-X, Madrid: Gredos, →ISBN, page 12
  3. ^ rèdine in Treccani.it – Vocabolario Treccani on line, Istituto dell'Enciclopedia Italiana

Etymology 2[edit]

See the etymology of the corresponding lemma form.

Pronunciation[edit]

Adjective[edit]

rētīna

  1. inflection of rētīnus:
    1. nominative/vocative feminine singular
    2. nominative/accusative/vocative neuter plural

rētīnā

  1. ablative feminine singular of rētīnus

Etymology 3[edit]

Ellipsis of tunica rētīna (a net-like tunic), referring to the fibrillar texture of the eye's retina.[1] The phrase is attested since at least the 12th century, and this noun usage since the 13th c.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

rētīna f (genitive rētīnae); first declension

  1. (Medieval Latin, anatomy) the retina of an eye
    • 13th c., Roger Bacon, Opus maius 5.1.2.3:
      Et dicit Avicenna quarto de Animalibus, quod retina ducit nutrimentum secundum veritatem ad partes oculi
      And Avicenna says in his fourth book on Animals that the retina actually takes nutrients to the parts of the eye
Inflection[edit]

First-declension noun.

Case Singular Plural
Nominative rētīna rētīnae
Genitive rētīnae rētīnārum
Dative rētīnae rētīnīs
Accusative rētīnam rētīnās
Ablative rētīnā rētīnīs
Vocative rētīna rētīnae
Descendants[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ “retina”, in OED Online Paid subscription required, Oxford, Oxfordshire: Oxford University Press, launched 2000.

Etymology 4[edit]

An etymologising spelling, closer to the word’s etymon Ancient Greek ῥητῑ́νη (rhētī́nē, resin of the pine).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

rētīna f (genitive rētīnae); first declension

  1. medieval spelling of rēsīna (resin)
Inflection[edit]

First-declension noun.

Case Singular Plural
Nominative rētīna rētīnae
Genitive rētīnae rētīnārum
Dative rētīnae rētīnīs
Accusative rētīnam rētīnās
Ablative rētīnā rētīnīs
Vocative rētīna rētīnae

References[edit]


Portuguese[edit]

Verb[edit]

retina

  1. first-person singular (eu) present subjunctive of retinir
  2. third-person singular (ele and ela, also used with você and others) present subjunctive of retinir
  3. third-person singular (você) affirmative imperative of retinir
  4. third-person singular (você) negative imperative of retinir

Spanish[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /reˈtina/, [reˈt̪i.na]
  • (file)

Noun[edit]

retina f (plural retinas)

  1. retina

Further reading[edit]