- journall (obsolete)
From Middle English journal, from Anglo-Norman jurnal (“daily”), from Old French jornel (“day”) (French journal), from Latin diurnālis, from diurnus (“of the day”), from diēs (“day”) (whence also diary), from *djous, from Proto-Indo-European *dyḗws (“heaven, sky”). Doublet of diurnal and the journal from French. The sound change from Latin to French (‘diur’ to ‘jor’) is due to the ‘i’ changing to a ‘j’, followed by the ‘d’ being dropped; compare French jour (“day”).
- (General American) enPR: jûrʹnəl, IPA(key): /ˈd͡ʒɝnəl/
- (Received Pronunciation) IPA(key): /ˈd͡ʒɜːnəl/
Audio (Southern England) (file) Audio (CA) (file)
- Rhymes: -ɜː(ɹ)nəl
- Hyphenation: jour‧nal
journal (plural journals)
- A diary or daily record of a person, organization, vessel etc.; daybook.
- A newspaper or magazine dealing with a particular subject.
- The university's biology department subscribes to half a dozen academic journals.
- (accounting) A chronological record of payments or receipts.
- (accounting) A general journal.
- (computing) A chronological record of changes made to a database or other system; along with a backup or image copy that allows recovery after a failure or reinstatement to a previous time; a log.
- (engineering) The part of a shaft or axle that rests on bearings.
In the sense “daily record”, diary and journal are often used interchangeably. When usage is distinguished, diary refers more strictly to a personal daily record, while journal is used more loosely, for example for less frequent, thematic personal writing.
journal (not comparable)
journal (plural journaux)
- The amount of land that can be worked in a day.
- 1781, “Dictionaire Historique et Géographique de la Province de Bretagne; dédié à la Nation Bretonne; par M. Ogée, Ingenieur-Géographe de cette Province. […]”, in The Critical Review: or, Annals of Literature, volume the fifty-first, London: […] A. Hamilton, […], “Foreign Articles”, pages 465–466:
- Yet the whole extent of cultured country, or all the fields actually cultivated for the ſupport of the inhabitants, will hardly exceed two millions of journaux (or day’s work); above three millions lie entirely waſte; and 850,000 journaux are covered with ſand.
- 1836, Report, Commonwealth Shipping Committee, page 46:
- The extent of these “Métairies” varies according to the number of the family of the métayer, and the nature of the soil, from 65 journaux (52 statute acres) to 30 journaux (24 acres), for the métayer generally endeavours to cultivate the land he holds, without the help of hired servants or labourers. Average land producing rye ought to be worth to the métayer 7 francs (5 s. 7 d.) per journaux (four-fifths of an acre); that producing wheat 25 francs (1 l.) per acre. The only land farmed is meadow land, situated in the lower part of Médoc, called “Bas Médoc,” and a part of the district of Blaye, which is let, at an average, 80 francs (3 l. 4 s.) the journaux (four-fifths of an acre). […] The best wheat land gives 10 hectolitres per journaux, that is, three quarters and four-sevenths per four-fifths of an acre. The worst three hectolitres (1 quarter per four-fifths of an acre,) or one journal. Rye gives six hectolitres per journaux (2 quarters per four-fifths of an acre). Oats sometimes 25 hectolitres per journaux (8 quarters and 13-14ths, per four-fifths of an acre).
- 1855, “Brick and Marble in the Middle Ages: Notes of a Tour in the North of Italy. By George Edmund Street, […].”, in The Civil Engineer and Architect’s Journal, Incorporated with The Architect, volume XVIII, London: R. Groombridge and Sons, […], “Reviews”, page 343, column 2:
- ‘The surface of the downs, which form the landes of Bordeaux,’ says he, ‘being equal to 337,000 Bordeaux journaux, of 840 square toises, the amount required to fix the whole of these downs would be 8,000,000 livres. Now, a journal (0·33 hectares) of sand planted with pines, gives an annual return of 15 livres, that of 337,000 journaux would therefore be of 5,055,000 livres.
- 1899, Charles Cocks, Bordeaux and Its Wines Classed by Order of Merit, 3rd English edition, Feret & Fils, […]; Libraires Associes, […], translation of original by Edouard Feret […], page 704:
- This estate consists of 33 hectares, 12 of which (i. e., about 43 journaux) are devoted to the vine.
journal m (plural journaux)
- diary, journal
- Hyponym: feuille de chou
- Tu as regardé le journal ? ― (please add an English translation of this usage example)
- (computing) log
- → Afrikaans: joernaal
- → Belarusian: журнал (žurnal)
- → Bulgarian: журнал (žurnal)
- → Czech: žurnál
- → Dutch: journaal
- → Egyptian Arabic: جورنال (gōrnāl)
- → English: journal
- → Esperanto: ĵurnalo
- Ido: jurnalo
- → Indonesian: jurnal
- → German: Journal
- → Estonian: žurnaal
- → Ladino: jurnal / ז׳ורנאל
- → Latvian: žurnāls
- → Lower Sorbian: žurnal
- → Maltese: ġurnal
- → Malay: jurnal
- → Ottoman Turkish: ژورنال (jurnal)
- Turkish: jurnal
- → Pashto: ژورنال (žurnãl)
- → Persian: ژورنال (žurnâl)
- → Polish: żurnal
- → Portuguese: jornal
- → Hunsrik: Schurnall
- → Romanian: jurnal
- → Russian: журна́л (žurnál) (see there for further descendants)
- → Slovak: žurnál
- → Swedish: journal
- → Ukrainian: журнал (žurnal)
- → West Frisian: sjoernaal
- → Yiddish: זשורנאַל (zhurnal)
- “journal”, in Trésor de la langue française informatisé [Digitized Treasury of the French Language], 2012.
journal m (oblique and nominative feminine singular journale)
- French: journal (see there for further descendants)
- Anglo-Norman: jurnal
|Declension of journal|