紅葉

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See also: 红叶

Chinese[edit]

 
red; revolutionary; prosperity; bonus; popular
leaf; page
trad. (紅葉)
simp. (红叶)

Pronunciation[edit]


Noun[edit]

紅葉

  1. red autumnal leaves

Japanese[edit]

Momijien 2005 005.jpg

Etymology 1[edit]

Kanji in this term
もみ
Grade: 6
Grade: 3
Irregular

⟨momi1ti⟩/momit͡ɕi/

First attested in the Man'yōshū, spelled either in jukujikun (熟字訓) or phonetically in man'yōgana.

The 連用形 (ren'yōkei, continuative form) of Old Japanese verb 紅葉つ (momitsu, of leaves, to change colors in autumn), influenced by (momi, silk cloth dyed crimson) and classical verb 燃ゆ (moyu), modern 燃える (moeru, to burn, as the autumn colors appear like fire).

Alternative forms[edit]

  • 黄葉 (usually for mostly "yellow" leaves)

Pronunciation[edit]

  • (Irregular reading)

Noun[edit]

紅葉 (hiragana もみち, rōmaji momichi)

  1. (obsolete) the color-changing (in this case, the reddening) of leaves in autumn; also, the autumn leaves themselves
    • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 19, poem 4223), text here
       () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () [Man'yōgana]
      あをによし () () (ひと) ()むと () () () (しめ)けむ紅葉 (もみち) (つち) ()ちめやも [Modern spelling]
      ao ni yoshi Nara-hito mimu to waga seko ga shime-kemu momichi tsuchi ni ochime ya mo
      In order that that person in Nara may see them, you, my friend, might have put a [shime] round the [momiji]. Should they then fall on the ground? (Never)[1]
    • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 19, poem 4225), text here
       (あし) () () () (やまの)黄葉 (もみち) () () () () (あひ) ()将落 (ちらむ) (やま) () ()公之 (きみが) (こえ) () () [Man'yōgana]
      あしひきの (やま)紅葉 (もみち)にしづくあひて ()らむ (やま) () (きみ) ()えまく [Modern spelling]
      ashi-hiki no yama no momichi ni shizuku aite chiramu yama-ji o kimi ga koemaku
      Together with the red autumn-leaves of the footdragging hills, the raindrops will be scattered on the hill-road, which my lord must cross over.[1]

Etymology 2[edit]

Kanji in this term
もみ
Grade: 6
Grade: 3
Irregular

/momit͡ɕi//momid͡ʑi//momiʑi/

The 連用形 (ren'yōkei, continuative form) of classical verb 紅葉づ (momidu), modern 紅葉ず (momizu, of leaves, to change colors in autumn).

Appears to be a later sound change from momichi above.

Alternative forms[edit]

  • (autumn leaves): 黄葉 (usually mostly "yellow")
  • (Japanese maple): ,

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

紅葉 (hiragana もみじ, rōmaji momiji, historical hiragana もみぢ)

  1. the color-changing (in this case, the reddening) of leaves in autumn; also, the autumn leaves themselves
  2. Japanese maple (Acer palmatum); also, its leaves
    Synonyms: 以呂波紅葉 (iroha-momiji)
  3. Short for 紅葉襲 (momiji-gasane).
  4. (colloquial) venison
    Synonyms: 鹿肉 (shika-niku)
  5. name of a 家紋 (kamon, family crest), another name for 楓紋 (kaede-mon)
  6. (card games) the suit of cards in a hanafuda deck that show the autumn leaves, representing the month of October
Derived terms[edit]
Idioms[edit]
Coordinate terms[edit]

Verb[edit]

紅葉する (hiragana もみじする, rōmaji momiji suru, historical hiragana もみぢする)

  1. of leaves, to change colors in autumn (Can we verify(+) this sense?)
Inflection[edit]

Proper noun[edit]

紅葉 (hiragana もみじ, rōmaji Momiji)

  1. a place name
  2. a surname​.
  3. a female given name

Etymology 3[edit]

Kanji in this term
もみ
Grade: 6
は > ば
Grade: 3
kun’yomi

From Old Japanese.

Compound of 紅葉 (もみじ) (momiji, autumn colors) +  () (ha, leaf). The ha changes to ba as an instance of rendaku (連濁). Also appears with the ancient pronunciation of momichi.

The momichi/momiji part is usually spelled in kana for emphasis.

Alternative forms[edit]

  • (rare, found in compounds): 紅葉葉
  • (usually mostly "yellow" leaves): 黄葉

Pronunciation[edit]

  • (Irregular reading)

Noun[edit]

紅葉 (hiragana もみじば, rōmaji momiji-ba, historical hiragana もみぢば)
(alternative reading hiragana もみちば, romaji momichi-ba)

  1. the leaves that changed color (in this case, into red) in autumn
  2. the leaves of the (kaede, Japanese maple, Acer palmatum), also known as momiji
    • c. 1005, Shūi Wakashū (book 17, poem 1128; also Hyakunin Isshu, poem 26)
       () (ぐら) (やま) (みね)もみぢ () (こころ)あらば (いま)ひとたびみゆき ()たなむ
      Ogura-yama mine no momiji-ba kokoro araba ima hitotabi no miyuki matanan
      Maple leaves on Mt. Ogura, if you have enough sense you will stay as you are until the next imperial visit.[4]
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 4[edit]

Kanji in this term
こう
Grade: 6
よう
Grade: 3
on’yomi

/kou epu//koueu//koːyoː/

From Middle Chinese 紅葉 (MC ɦuŋ jiᴇp̚). (Can this(+) etymology be sourced?)

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

紅葉 (hiragana こうよう, rōmaji kōyō, historical hiragana こうえふ)

  1. the color-changing of leaves in autumn, usually into red; also, the red leaves themselves
    • 1999 August 26, “こうようじょおう [Queen of Autumn Leaves]”, in BOOSTER 4, Konami:
       (あざ)やかな (こう) (よう) (かこ)まれて ()らす、 (りょく) (じゅ) (れい) (おう)のお ()
      Azayaka na kōyō ni kakomarete kurasu, Ryokuju no Reiō no ohi.
      The consort of the Spirit King of Greenery, living within vibrant autumn leaves.
Derived terms[edit]

See also[edit]

Verb[edit]

紅葉する (hiragana こうようする, rōmaji kōyō suru, historical hiragana こうえふする)

  1. of leaves, to change colors in autumn (Can we verify(+) this sense?)
Inflection[edit]

Proper noun[edit]

紅葉 (hiragana こうよう, rōmaji Kōyō, historical hiragana こうえふ)

  1. a female given name

Etymology 5[edit]

Various nanori readings.

Proper noun[edit]

紅葉 (hiragana あかは, rōmaji Akaha, alternative reading あけは, rōmaji Akeha, alternative reading あげは, rōmaji Ageha, alternative reading いろは, rōmaji Iroha, alternative reading かえで, rōmaji Kaede, alternative reading くれは, rōmaji Kureha, alternative reading べには, rōmaji Beniha, alternative reading もみ, rōmaji Momi, alternative reading もよ, rōmaji Moyo)

  1. a female given name

References[edit]

  1. 1.0 1.1 Jan Lodewijk Pierson, Jr. (1963) The Manyôśû Translated and Annotated Book XVIII, Brill Archive
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  3. ^ Janet Emily Goff (2014) Noh Drama and "The Tale of the Genji": The Art of Allusion in Fifteen Classical Plays (Princeton Legacy Library), annotated edition, Princeton University Press, →ISBN, page 263
  4. ^ Sasaki Sanmi; Shaun McCabe; Iwasaki Satoko (2011) Chado the Way of Tea: A Japanese Tea Master's Almanac, Tuttle Publishing, →ISBN, page 564