鹿

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Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
鹿-order.gif

Etymology[edit]

鹿
Historical forms of the character 鹿
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Large seal script Small seal script
鹿-oracle.svg 鹿-bronze.svg 鹿-bigseal.svg 鹿-seal.svg

Pictogram (象形) – a deer. Current form is highly abstracted – legs have transformed to – note grouping of front and rear legs, which are bent – head has transformed to middle component (similar to /), while antlers on top and extended lip/mouth on left transformed into 广. This simplification occurred during seal characters.

Contrast the very different development of ‎(horse), and the hybrid simplification in 𢊁 ‎(bison) (as in ), which has the head of 鹿 but the legs of 馬 ().

Han character[edit]

鹿 (radical 198 鹿+0, 11 strokes, cangjie input 戈X心 (IXP), four-corner 00211)

  1. deer
  2. used as a surname
  3. KangXi radical 198

Derived characters[edit]

Related characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 1508, character 14
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 47586
  • Dae Jaweon: page 2036, character 14
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 7, page 4727, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+9E7F

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.
鹿

Pronunciation[edit]


  • Dialectal data
Variety Location 鹿
Mandarin Beijing /lu⁵¹/
Harbin /lu⁵³/
Tianjin /lu⁵³/
Jinan /lu²¹/
Qingdao /lu²⁴/
Zhengzhou /lu²⁴/
Xi'an /lu²¹/
Xining /lv̩⁴⁴/
Yinchuan /lu¹³/
Lanzhou /lu¹³/
Ürümqi /lu²¹³/
Wuhan /nəu²¹³/
Chengdu /nu³¹/
Guiyang /nu²¹/
Kunming /lu³¹/
Nanjing /luʔ⁵/
Hefei /luəʔ⁵/
Jin Taiyuan /luəʔ²/
Pingyao /luʌʔ⁵³/
Hohhot /luəʔ⁴³/
Wu Shanghai /loʔ¹/
Suzhou /loʔ³/
Hangzhou /loʔ²/
Wenzhou /lɤu²¹³/
Hui Shexian /lu²²/
Tunxi /ləu¹¹/
Xiang Changsha /ləu²⁴/
Xiangtan /nəɯ²⁴/
Gan Nanchang /luʔ⁵/
Hakka Meixian /luk̚⁵/
Taoyuan /luk̚⁵⁵/
Cantonese Guangzhou /lok̚²/
Nanning /luk̚²²/
Hong Kong /luk̚²/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /lɔk̚⁵/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /løyʔ⁵/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /lu⁴²/
Shantou (Min Nan) /tek̚⁵/
Haikou (Min Nan) /lok̚⁵/
/ʔdiak̚³/

Rime
Character 鹿
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (37)
Final () (3)
Tone (調) Checked (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () I
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/luk̚/
Pan
Wuyun
/luk̚/
Shao
Rongfen
/luk̚/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ləwk̚/
Li
Rong
/luk̚/
Wang
Li
/luk̚/
Bernard
Karlgren
/luk̚/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character 鹿
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle
Chinese
‹ luwk ›
Old
Chinese
/*mə-rˤok/
English deer

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character 鹿
Reading # 1/1
No. 8565
Phonetic
component
鹿
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*b·roːɡ/

Noun[edit]

鹿

  1. deer

Synonyms[edit]

References[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

鹿

(common “Jōyō” kanji)

  1. deer

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Kanji in this term
鹿

Grade: S
kun'yomi

From Old Japanese.[1]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

鹿 ‎(hiragana , romaji ka)

  1. (archaic) deer

Etymology 2[edit]

Kanji in this term
鹿
しか
Grade: S
kun'yomi

/seka//sika/

Originally a compound of ‎(se, male) +‎ 鹿 ‎(ka, deer), in contrast to 女鹿 ‎(meka, female deer, archaic).[1][2]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

鹿 ‎(hiragana しか, romaji shika)

  1. deer
    奈良公園 (ならこうえん)には鹿 (しか)しかいない。
    Nara kōen ni wa shika shika inai.
    There is nothing but deer in Nara Park.
Idioms[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

Kanji in this term
鹿
かせぎ
Grade: S
kun'yomi

From the resemblance to a 桛木 ‎(kasegi, cross-shaped spindle; a branching point in a tree)

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

鹿 ‎(hiragana かせぎ, romaji kasegi)

  1. (archaic) deer
    • 1212: Hōjōki
      山鳥 (やまどり)のほろと ()くを ()きても、 (ちち) (はは)かと (うたが)ひ、 (みね)かせぎ (ちか)くなれたるにつけても、 () (とお)ざかるほどを ()る。
      Yamadori no horo to naku o kikite mo, chichi ka haha ka to utagahi, mine no kasegi no chikaku naretaru ni tsukete mo, yo ni tōzakaru hodo oshiru.
      Hearing the horo call of the mountain pheasant, wondering if it were my father or mother [calling from beyond the grave], and seeing how the deer on the ridge are so tame that they come close by, all of it shows me how far away I am from the world.

Etymology 4[edit]

Kanji in this term
鹿
かのしし
Grade: S
kun'yomi

Originally a compound of 鹿 ‎(ka, deer) +‎ ‎(no, possessive particle) +‎ ‎(しし, meat, flesh).[1][2]

Pronunciation[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Noun[edit]

鹿 ‎(hiragana かのしし, romaji kanoshishi)

  1. (archaic) deer
  2. deer meat: venison

Etymology 5[edit]

Kanji in this term
鹿
しし
Grade: S
kun'yomi

From ‎(shishi, meat, flesh).[1][2]

Pronunciation[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Noun[edit]

鹿 ‎(hiragana しし, romaji shishi)

  1. (archaic) a beast (used for its meat, such as a boar or a deer)
  2. short for 猪武者 ‎(inoshishi musha): a reckless warrior
  3. short for 鹿狩り ‎(shishi-gari): a deer hunter
  4. (slang) a female attendant at a bathhouse or hot spring
  5. (slang, archaic) a female prostitute at a bathhouse or hot spring
Usage notes[edit]

The beast sense is more commonly spelled .

Etymology 6[edit]

Kanji in this term
鹿
ろく
Grade: S
on'yomi

From Middle Chinese 鹿 ‎(luwk, deer). Compare modern Min Nan reading lo̍k.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

鹿 ‎(hiragana ろく, romaji roku)

  1. deer
  2. venison or wild boar meat

References[edit]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

鹿 ‎(rok, nok) (hangeul , , revised rok, nok, McCune-Reischauer rok, nok, Yale lok, nok)

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Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

鹿 (lộc, )

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