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Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
共-bw.png
Historical forms of the character
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Bamboo and silk script Large seal script Small seal script
共-oracle.svg 共-bronze.svg 共-silk.svg 共-bigseal.svg 共-seal.svg

Han character[edit]

(radical 12 +4, 6 strokes, cangjie input 廿金 (TC), four-corner 44801, composition)

Derived characters[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 127, character 5
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 1458
  • Dae Jaweon: page 283, character 6
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 243, character 2
  • Unihan data for U+5171

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.

Pronunciation[edit]


Dialectal pronunciations ()
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /kuŋ⁵¹/
Harbin /kuŋ⁵³/
Tianjin /kuŋ⁵³/
Jinan /kuŋ²¹/
Qingdao /kəŋ⁴²/
Zhengzhou /kuŋ³¹²/
Xi'an /kuŋ⁴⁴/
Xining /kuə̃²¹³/
Yinchuan /kuŋ¹³/
Lanzhou /kũn¹³/
Ürümqi /kuŋ²¹³/
Wuhan /koŋ³⁵/
Chengdu /koŋ¹³/
Guiyang /koŋ²¹³/
Kunming /koŋ¹/
Nanjing /koŋ⁴⁴/
Hefei /kəŋ⁵³/
Jin Taiyuan /kuəŋ⁴⁵/
Pingyao /kuŋ³⁵/
Hohhot /kũŋ⁵⁵/
Wu Shanghai /goŋ¹³/
Suzhou /goŋ³¹/
Hangzhou /goŋ¹³/
Wenzhou /d͡ʑyɔ²²/
Hui Shexian /kʰuʌ̃²²/
Tunxi /kan⁴²/
Xiang Changsha /koŋ⁵⁵/
/koŋ¹¹/
Xiangtan /gən²¹/
Gan Nanchang /t͡ɕʰiuŋ²¹/ ~雙筷子
/kʰuŋ²¹/
Hakka Meixian /kʰiuŋ⁵³/
Taoyuan /kʰioŋ⁵⁵/
Cantonese Guangzhou /koŋ²²/
Nanning /kuŋ²²/
Hong Kong /kuŋ²²/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /kiɔŋ²²/
/iŋ²²/
/kaŋ²²/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /køyŋ²⁴²/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /kɔŋ⁴⁴/
Shantou (Min Nan) /kaŋ³¹/
Haikou (Min Nan) /koŋ³³/
/kaŋ²³/
Middle Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Character (), Pronunciation 1/2

Initial: (28)
Final: (7)
Tone: Level (Ø)

Openness: Open
Division: III
Fanqie:

Expected Mandarin reflex: jiōng
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Pan
Wuyun
Shao
Rongfen
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Li
Rong
Wang
Li
Bernard
Karlgren
/kɨoŋ/ /kioŋ/ /kioŋ/ /kuawŋ/ /kioŋ/ /kĭwoŋ/ /ki̯woŋ/
Character (), Pronunciation 2/2

Initial: (30)
Final: (7)
Tone: Departing (H)

Openness: Open
Division: III
Fanqie:

Expected Mandarin reflex: jiòng
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Pan
Wuyun
Shao
Rongfen
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Li
Rong
Wang
Li
Bernard
Karlgren
/ɡɨoŋH/ /ɡioŋH/ /ɡioŋH/ /guawŋH/ /ɡioŋH/ /ɡĭwoŋH/ /gi̯woŋH/
Old Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character Modern Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle Chinese Old Chinese English
gòng ‹ gjowngH › /*N-k(r)oŋʔ-s/ together, all

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

  • Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
  • Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
  • Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
  • Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;
  • Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character No. Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
Corresponding
MC rime
Old Chinese Notes
4170 0 /*kloŋ/
4182 0 /*ɡloŋs/

Adverb[edit]

  1. together, co-

Compounds[edit]

References[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 4 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. together
  2. both
  3. all
  4. with
  5. co-

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana とも, romaji tomo)

  1. both, all

Prefix[edit]

‎(hiragana きょう, romaji kyō-)

  1. co-

Suffix[edit]

‎(hiragana とも, romaji -tomo)

  1. altogether
  2. -included
    送料共 (そうりょうとも)
    sōryō-tomo
    including shipping fees, including postage

Synonyms[edit]

Suffix[edit]

‎(hiragana ども, romaji -domo)

  1. indicates plural

Synonyms[edit]

Usage notes[edit]

Affixing 共 to oneself indicates humbleness. Affixing 共 to other people is disrespectful compared to 達 (たち, -tachi).

Related terms[edit]


Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

‎(gong) (hangeul )

  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(cộng, cung, cụng, cùng, gọng, cọng, cũng)

Compounds[edit]

  • 越南共和 Việt Nam cộng hòa
  • 共產 cộng sản
  • 越共 Việt Cộng
  • 中共 Trung Cộng
  • This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.

Readings[edit]

  • Nôm: cọng, cộng, cùng, cũng, cụng, gọng

References[edit]

  • Thiều Chửu : Hán Việt Tự Điển Hà Nội 1942
  • Trần Văn Chánh: Từ Điển Hán Việt NXB Trẻ, Ho Chi Minh Ville, 1999
  • Vũ Văn Kính: Đại Tự Điển Chữ Nôm , NXB Văn Nghệ, Ho Chi Minh Ville, 1999