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U+5171, 共
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-5171

[U+5170]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+5172]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
6 strokes

Han character[edit]

(radical 12 +4, 6 strokes, cangjie input 廿金 (TC), four-corner 44801, composition)

Derived characters[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 127, character 5
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 1458
  • Dae Jaweon: page 283, character 6
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 243, character 2
  • Unihan data for U+5171

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
共-oracle.svg 共-bronze.svg 共-silk.svg 共-seal.svg 共-bigseal.svg




References:

Mostly from Richard Sears' Chinese Etymology site (authorisation),
which in turn draws data from various collections of ancient forms of Chinese characters, including:

  • Shuowen Jiezi (small seal),
  • Jinwen Bian (bronze inscriptions),
  • Liushutong (Liushutong characters) and
  • Yinxu Jiaguwen Bian (oracle bone script).
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*kroːŋʔ, *ɡloːŋs
*ɡroːŋs
*ɡroːŋs
*ɡroːŋs, *ɡloːŋs
*qʰloːŋ, *qʰloːŋs, *ɡoːŋ, *ɡloːŋs
*ɡloːŋ
*ɡloːŋ
*ɡloːŋ
*ɡoːŋ
*ɡloːŋs
*ɡloːŋs
*kloŋ
*kloŋ, *kloŋs
*kloŋ
*kloŋ, *kloŋʔ
*kloŋ, *ɡloŋs
*kloŋ
*kloŋʔ
*kloŋʔ, *kloɡ
*kloŋʔ, *ɡloŋ
*kloŋʔ
*kloŋʔ, *ɡloŋ
*ɡloŋ
*kloɡ

Pronunciation 1[edit]


Note:
  • qiung5 - vernacular;
  • kung5 - literary.
Note: .
Note:
  • kāng, kā - vernacular;
  • kiōng - literary.
Note:
  • gong5 - vernacular;
  • gong4 - literary.

  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /kuŋ⁵¹/
Harbin /kuŋ⁵³/
Tianjin /kuŋ⁵³/
Jinan /kuŋ²¹/
Qingdao /kəŋ⁴²/
Zhengzhou /kuŋ³¹²/
Xi'an /kuŋ⁴⁴/
Xining /kuə̃²¹³/
Yinchuan /kuŋ¹³/
Lanzhou /kũn¹³/
Ürümqi /kuŋ²¹³/
Wuhan /koŋ³⁵/
Chengdu /koŋ¹³/
Guiyang /koŋ²¹³/
Kunming /koŋ¹/
Nanjing /koŋ⁴⁴/
Hefei /kəŋ⁵³/
Jin Taiyuan /kuəŋ⁴⁵/
Pingyao /kuŋ³⁵/
Hohhot /kũŋ⁵⁵/
Wu Shanghai /goŋ²³/
Suzhou /goŋ³¹/
Hangzhou /goŋ¹³/
Wenzhou /d͡ʑyɔ²²/
Hui Shexian /kʰuʌ̃²²/
Tunxi /kan⁴²/
Xiang Changsha /koŋ⁵⁵/
/koŋ¹¹/
Xiangtan /gən²¹/
Gan Nanchang /t͡ɕʰiuŋ²¹/ ~雙筷子
/kʰuŋ²¹/
Hakka Meixian /kʰiuŋ⁵³/
Taoyuan /kʰioŋ⁵⁵/
Cantonese Guangzhou /koŋ²²/
Nanning /kuŋ²²/
Hong Kong /kuŋ²²/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /kiɔŋ²²/
/iŋ²²/
/kaŋ²²/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /køyŋ²⁴²/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /kɔŋ⁴⁴/
Shantou (Min Nan) /kaŋ³¹/
Haikou (Min Nan) /koŋ³³/
/kaŋ²³/

Rime
Character
Reading # 2/2
Initial () (30)
Final () (7)
Tone (調) Departing (H)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ɡɨoŋH/
Pan
Wuyun
/ɡioŋH/
Shao
Rongfen
/ɡioŋH/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/guawŋH/
Li
Rong
/ɡioŋH/
Wang
Li
/ɡĭwoŋH/
Bernard
Karlgren
/gi̯woŋH/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
jiòng
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
gòng
Middle
Chinese
‹ gjowngH ›
Old
Chinese
/*N-k(r)oŋʔ-s/
English together, all

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 2/2
No. 4182
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*ɡloŋs/

Definitions[edit]

  1. common
  2. together
  3. to share
  4. (literary or dialectal) and

Compounds[edit]

Pronunciation 2[edit]



Rime
Character
Reading # 1/2
Initial () (28)
Final () (7)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/kɨoŋ/
Pan
Wuyun
/kioŋ/
Shao
Rongfen
/kioŋ/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/kuawŋ/
Li
Rong
/kioŋ/
Wang
Li
/kĭwoŋ/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ki̯woŋ/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
jiōng
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/2
No. 4170
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*kloŋ/

Definitions[edit]

  1. A surname​.

Pronunciation 3[edit]



Rime
Character
Reading # 1/2
Initial () (28)
Final () (7)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/kɨoŋ/
Pan
Wuyun
/kioŋ/
Shao
Rongfen
/kioŋ/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/kuawŋ/
Li
Rong
/kioŋ/
Wang
Li
/kĭwoŋ/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ki̯woŋ/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
jiōng
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/2
No. 4170
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*kloŋ/

Definitions[edit]

  1. Alternative form of (gōng, “to provide”).
  2. Alternative form of (gōng, “respectful”).
  3. Alternative form of (gōng, “castration (as punishment)”).

Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 4 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. together
  2. both
  3. all
  4. with
  5. co-

Readings[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Noun[edit]

(hiragana とも, rōmaji tomo)

  1. both, all

Prefix[edit]

(hiragana きょう, rōmaji kyō-)

  1. co-

Suffix[edit]

(hiragana とも, rōmaji -tomo)

  1. altogether
  2. -included
    送料共 (そうりょうとも)
    sōryō-tomo
    including shipping fees, including postage

Synonyms[edit]

Suffix[edit]

(hiragana ども, rōmaji -domo)

  1. indicates plural

Synonyms[edit]

Usage notes[edit]

Affixing 共 to oneself indicates humbleness. Affixing 共 to other people is disrespectful compared to 達 (たち, -tachi).

Related terms[edit]


Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

(gong) (hangeul )

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(cộng, cung, cụng, cùng, gọng, cọng, cũng)

Compounds[edit]

  • 越南共和 Việt Nam cộng hòa
  • 共產 cộng sản
  • 越共 Việt Cộng
  • 中共 Trung Cộng
  • This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

References[edit]

  • Thiều Chửu : Hán Việt Tự Điển Hà Nội 1942
  • Trần Văn Chánh: Từ Điển Hán Việt NXB Trẻ, Ho Chi Minh Ville, 1999
  • Vũ Văn Kính: Đại Tự Điển Chữ Nôm, NXB Văn Nghệ, Ho Chi Minh Ville, 1999