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Translingual[edit]

Han character[edit]

(radical 119 +10, 16 strokes, cangjie input 火木戈中口 (FDILR), four-corner 90967, composition)

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 911, character 38
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 27070
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1338, character 29
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 5, page 3157, character 7
  • Unihan data for U+7CD6

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.

Glyph origin[edit]

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *l'aːŋ): semantic  ‎(rice) + phonetic  ‎(OC *ɡl'aːŋ) – grains of sugar.

Etymology[edit]

Original meaning was "sweet rice cake" or "sugar syrup". Cognate with .

Compare Proto-Lingao lhaŋ2 ("sugar"), whence Lincheng /haŋ˧˧/, Qiongshan /liaŋ˩˧/.

Pronunciation[edit]



  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /tʰɑŋ³⁵/
Harbin /tʰaŋ²⁴/
Tianjin /tʰɑŋ⁴⁵/
Jinan /tʰaŋ⁴²/
Qingdao /tʰaŋ⁴²/
Zhengzhou /tʰaŋ⁴²/
Xi'an /tʰaŋ²⁴/
Xining /tʰɔ̃²⁴/
Yinchuan /tʰɑŋ⁵³/
Lanzhou /tʰɑ̃⁵³/
Ürümqi /tʰɑŋ⁵¹/
Wuhan /tʰaŋ²¹³/
Chengdu /tʰaŋ³¹/
Guiyang /tʰaŋ²¹/
Kunming /tʰã̠¹/
Nanjing /tʰaŋ²⁴/
Hefei /tʰɑ̃⁵⁵/
Jin Taiyuan /tʰɒ̃¹¹/
Pingyao /tʰɑŋ¹³/
/tɑŋ¹³/ 黑~
Hohhot /tʰɑ̃³¹/
Wu Shanghai /dɑ̃²³/
Suzhou /dɑ̃¹³/
Hangzhou /dɑŋ²¹³/
Wenzhou /duɔ³¹/
Hui Shexian /tʰa⁴⁴/
Tunxi /tʰau¹¹/
Xiang Changsha /tan¹³/
Xiangtan /dɔn¹²/
Gan Nanchang /tʰɔŋ²⁴/
Hakka Meixian /tʰoŋ¹¹/
Taoyuan /tʰoŋ¹¹/
Cantonese Guangzhou /tʰɔŋ²¹/
Nanning /tʰɔŋ²¹/
Hong Kong /tʰɔŋ²¹/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /tʰɔŋ³⁵/
/tʰŋ̍³⁵/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /tʰouŋ⁵³/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /tʰɔŋ³³/
Shantou (Min Nan) /tʰɯŋ⁵⁵/
Haikou (Min Nan) /ho³¹/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (7)
Final () (101)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () I
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/dɑŋ/
Pan
Wuyun
/dɑŋ/
Shao
Rongfen
/dɑŋ/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/daŋ/
Li
Rong
/dɑŋ/
Wang
Li
/dɑŋ/
Bernard
Karlgren
/dʱɑŋ/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
táng
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
táng
Middle
Chinese
‹ dang ›
Old
Chinese
/*C.lˤaŋ/ (no pre-Qín exx)
English sugar

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 3961
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*l'aːŋ/

Definitions[edit]

  1. sugar
    尿病  ―  tángniàobìng  ―  diabetes
    [Cantonese]  ―  tong4 seoi2 [Jyutping]  ―  sugar water
  2. candy; sweets
    棒棒 [Cantonese]  ―  paang5 paang5 tong4-2 [Jyutping]  ―  lollipop
    冇益 [Cantonese]  ―  Tong2 sik6 dak1 do1 mou5 jik1. [Jyutping]  ―  Eating too much candy is unhealthy.
  3. (organic chemistry) saccharide
      ―  duōtáng  ―  polysaccharide

Compounds[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 6 “Kyōiku” kanji)

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Kanji in this term
とう
Grade: 6
on'yomi

Etymology[edit]

From Middle Chinese ‎(dang, sugar).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana とう, romaji , historical hiragana たう)

  1. sugar

References[edit]

  1. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9
  2. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, ISBN 978-4-14-011112-3

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

‎(dang, tang) (hangeul , , revised dang, tang, McCune-Reischauer tang, t'ang, Yale tang, thang)

  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.

Compounds[edit]


Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(đường)

  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.