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See also:
U+7CD6, 糖
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-7CD6

[U+7CD5]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+7CD7]

Translingual[edit]

Han character[edit]

(radical 119, +10, 16 strokes, cangjie input 火木戈中口 (FDILR), four-corner 90967, composition)

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 911, character 38
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 27070
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1338, character 29
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 5, page 3157, character 7
  • Unihan data for U+7CD6

Chinese[edit]

trad. /
simp.
alternative forms
 



𥼽𥹥
𥽻
𰪩 second round simplified
醣 - “saccharide

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han)
Small seal script
糖-seal.svg

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *l'aːŋ): semantic (rice) + phonetic (OC *ɡl'aːŋ).

Etymology[edit]

Original meaning was “sweet rice cake” or “sugar syrup”. Cognate with (OC *ljaːŋ).

Compare Proto-Lingao lhaŋ2 ("sugar"), whence Lincheng /haŋ˧˧/, Qiongshan /liaŋ˩˧/.

Pronunciation[edit]


Note:
  • tong4 - “sugar”;
  • tong4-2 - “candy”.
Note:
  • hong3 - “sugar”;
  • hong3* - “candy”.
  • Gan
  • Hakka
  • Jin
  • Min Bei
  • Min Dong
  • Min Nan
  • Note:
    • thn̂g - vernacular;
    • thông - literary.
  • Wu
  • Xiang

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /tʰɑŋ³⁵/
    Harbin /tʰaŋ²⁴/
    Tianjin /tʰɑŋ⁴⁵/
    Jinan /tʰaŋ⁴²/
    Qingdao /tʰaŋ⁴²/
    Zhengzhou /tʰaŋ⁴²/
    Xi'an /tʰaŋ²⁴/
    Xining /tʰɔ̃²⁴/
    Yinchuan /tʰɑŋ⁵³/
    Lanzhou /tʰɑ̃⁵³/
    Ürümqi /tʰɑŋ⁵¹/
    Wuhan /tʰaŋ²¹³/
    Chengdu /tʰaŋ³¹/
    Guiyang /tʰaŋ²¹/
    Kunming /tʰã̠¹/
    Nanjing /tʰaŋ²⁴/
    Hefei /tʰɑ̃⁵⁵/
    Jin Taiyuan /tʰɒ̃¹¹/
    Pingyao /tʰɑŋ¹³/
    /tɑŋ¹³/ 黑~
    Hohhot /tʰɑ̃³¹/
    Wu Shanghai /dɑ̃²³/
    Suzhou /dɑ̃¹³/
    Hangzhou /dɑŋ²¹³/
    Wenzhou /duɔ³¹/
    Hui Shexian /tʰa⁴⁴/
    Tunxi /tʰau¹¹/
    Xiang Changsha /tan¹³/
    Xiangtan /dɔn¹²/
    Gan Nanchang /tʰɔŋ²⁴/
    Hakka Meixian /tʰoŋ¹¹/
    Taoyuan /tʰoŋ¹¹/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /tʰɔŋ²¹/
    Nanning /tʰɔŋ²¹/
    Hong Kong /tʰɔŋ²¹/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /tʰɔŋ³⁵/
    /tʰŋ̍³⁵/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /tʰouŋ⁵³/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /tʰɔŋ³³/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /tʰɯŋ⁵⁵/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /ho³¹/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (7)
    Final () (101)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () I
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /dɑŋ/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /dɑŋ/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /dɑŋ/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /daŋ/
    Li
    Rong
    /dɑŋ/
    Wang
    Li
    /dɑŋ/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /dʱɑŋ/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    táng
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    táng
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ dang ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*C.lˁaŋ/ (no pre-Qín exx)
    English sugar

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 3961
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*l'aːŋ/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. sugar
      尿病  ―  tángniàobìng  ―  diabetes
      [Cantonese]  ―  tong4 seoi2 [Jyutping]  ―  sugar water
      薄荷糖 / 薄荷糖  ―  táng bóhétáng  ―  sugar-free peppermint candy
    2. candy; sweets
      棒棒  ―  bàngbàngtáng  ―  lollipop
      無糖薄荷 / 无糖薄荷  ―  wútáng bóhétáng  ―  sugar-free peppermint candy
      冇益 [Cantonese, trad. and simp.]
      tong4-2 sik6 dak1 do1 mou5 jik1. [Jyutping]
      Eating too much candy is unhealthy.
    3. (organic chemistry) saccharide; carbohydrate
        ―  duōtáng  ―  polysaccharide
      葡萄  ―  pútáotáng  ―  glucose
    4. to preserve food in alcohol or alcohol dregs
    5. (Internet slang, figurative) This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.
        ―  táng  ―  (please add an English translation of this example)
    6. (transgender slang, figurative) HRT (hormone replacement therapy) drugs, espcially pills
        ―  chītáng  ―  to undergo HRT (literally “to eat candy”)

    Synonyms[edit]

    Compounds[edit]

    Descendants[edit]

    Sino-Xenic ():
    • Japanese: (とう) ()
    • Korean: (, dang)
    • Vietnamese: đường ()

    Others:

    References[edit]


    Japanese[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (grade 6 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    Readings[edit]

    Compounds[edit]

    Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
    Wikipedia ja
    Kanji in this term
    とう
    Grade: 6
    on’yomi

    Etymology[edit]

    From Middle Chinese (dang, sugar).

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (とう) ( (historical kana たう)

    1. sugar

    References[edit]

    1. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    2. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN

    Korean[edit]

    Etymology 1[edit]

    From Middle Chinese (MC dɑŋ).

    Historical readings

    Pronunciation[edit]

    • Phonetic hangeul: []

    Hanja[edit]

    Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

    Wikisource

    (eumhun (yeot dang))

    1. Hanja form? of (sugar).

    Compounds[edit]

    Etymology 2[edit]

    From a corrupted or unorthodox reading.

    Pronunciation[edit]

    • Phonetic hangeul: []

    Hanja[edit]

    (eumhun (yeot tang))

    1. Hanja form? of (sugar).

    Compounds[edit]

    References[edit]

    • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [2]

    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    (đường)

    1. Hán tự form of đường (sugar).