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See also:
U+7CD6, 糖
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-7CD6

[U+7CD5]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+7CD7]

Translingual[edit]

Han character[edit]

(radical 119 +10, 16 strokes, cangjie input 火木戈中口 (FDILR), four-corner 90967, composition)

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 911, character 38
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 27070
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1338, character 29
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 5, page 3157, character 7
  • Unihan data for U+7CD6

Chinese[edit]

trad. /
simp.
醣 - “saccharide

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Small seal script
糖-seal.svg
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
ɡl'aːŋ
l'aːŋ
l'aːŋ
l'aːŋ
l'aːŋ
l'aːŋ
l'aːŋ
l'aːŋ
l'aːŋ
l'aːŋ
l'aːŋ
l'aːŋ
l'aːŋ
l'aːŋ
l'aːŋ
l'aːŋ
l'aːŋ
l'aːŋʔ, *l'aːŋs
kraːŋ
kraːŋ
kraːŋ
kʰlaːŋ
kʰlaːŋ
kʰlaːŋ
kʰlaːŋ
kʰlaːŋ
躿 kʰlaːŋ
kʰlaːŋʔ

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *l'aːŋ): semantic  (rice) + phonetic  (OC *ɡl'aːŋ) – grains of sugar.

Etymology[edit]

Original meaning was “sweet rice cake” or “sugar syrup”. Cognate with (OC *ljaːŋ).

Compare Proto-Lingao lhaŋ2 ("sugar"), whence Lincheng /haŋ˧˧/, Qiongshan /liaŋ˩˧/.

Pronunciation[edit]


Note:
  • tong4 - “sugar”;
  • tong4-2 - “candy”.
Note:
  • hong3 - “sugar”;
  • hong3* - “candy”.
Note:
  • thn̂g - vernacular;
  • thông - literary.

  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /tʰɑŋ³⁵/
Harbin /tʰaŋ²⁴/
Tianjin /tʰɑŋ⁴⁵/
Jinan /tʰaŋ⁴²/
Qingdao /tʰaŋ⁴²/
Zhengzhou /tʰaŋ⁴²/
Xi'an /tʰaŋ²⁴/
Xining /tʰɔ̃²⁴/
Yinchuan /tʰɑŋ⁵³/
Lanzhou /tʰɑ̃⁵³/
Ürümqi /tʰɑŋ⁵¹/
Wuhan /tʰaŋ²¹³/
Chengdu /tʰaŋ³¹/
Guiyang /tʰaŋ²¹/
Kunming /tʰã̠¹/
Nanjing /tʰaŋ²⁴/
Hefei /tʰɑ̃⁵⁵/
Jin Taiyuan /tʰɒ̃¹¹/
Pingyao /tʰɑŋ¹³/
/tɑŋ¹³/ 黑~
Hohhot /tʰɑ̃³¹/
Wu Shanghai /dɑ̃²³/
Suzhou /dɑ̃¹³/
Hangzhou /dɑŋ²¹³/
Wenzhou /duɔ³¹/
Hui Shexian /tʰa⁴⁴/
Tunxi /tʰau¹¹/
Xiang Changsha /tan¹³/
Xiangtan /dɔn¹²/
Gan Nanchang /tʰɔŋ²⁴/
Hakka Meixian /tʰoŋ¹¹/
Taoyuan /tʰoŋ¹¹/
Cantonese Guangzhou /tʰɔŋ²¹/
Nanning /tʰɔŋ²¹/
Hong Kong /tʰɔŋ²¹/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /tʰɔŋ³⁵/
/tʰŋ̍³⁵/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /tʰouŋ⁵³/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /tʰɔŋ³³/
Shantou (Min Nan) /tʰɯŋ⁵⁵/
Haikou (Min Nan) /ho³¹/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (7)
Final () (101)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () I
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/dɑŋ/
Pan
Wuyun
/dɑŋ/
Shao
Rongfen
/dɑŋ/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/daŋ/
Li
Rong
/dɑŋ/
Wang
Li
/dɑŋ/
Bernard
Karlgren
/dʱɑŋ/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
táng
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
táng
Middle
Chinese
‹ dang ›
Old
Chinese
/*C.lˤaŋ/ (no pre-Qín exx)
English sugar

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 3961
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*l'aːŋ/

Definitions[edit]

  1. sugar
    尿病  ―  tángniàobìng  ―  diabetes
    [Cantonese]  ―  tong4 seoi2 [Jyutping]  ―  sugar water
  2. candy; sweets
    棒棒  ―  bàngbàngtáng  ―  lollipop
    冇益 [Cantonese, trad. and simp.]
    Tong4-2 sik6 dak1 do1 mou5 jik1. [Jyutping]
    Eating too much candy is unhealthy.
  3. (organic chemistry) saccharide; carbohydrate
      ―  duōtáng  ―  polysaccharide

Synonyms[edit]

Dialectal synonyms of 糖果 (“candy; sweets”) [map]
Variety Location Words
Formal (Written Standard Chinese) 糖果
Mandarin Beijing 糖果
Taiwan 糖果
Nanjing 糖果
Cantonese Guangzhou
Hong Kong
Hong Kong (Weitou) 麻糖
Taishan 磨糖
Yangjiang 糖仔
Hakka Meixian 糖仔糖果
Yudu 糖子
Miaoli (N. Sixian) 糖仔甘糖
Liudui (S. Sixian) 糖仔甘糖
Hsinchu (Hailu) 糖仔甘糖
Dongshi (Dabu) 甘糖
Zhuolan (Raoping) 糖仔甘糖
Yunlin (Zhao'an) 甘糖
Hong Kong 麻糖糖仔
Huizhou Jixi
Min Dong Fuzhou
Matsu 金含
Min Nan Xiamen 糖仔
Quanzhou 糖仔
Taipei 糖仔
Kaohsiung 糖仔
Tainan 糖仔
Taichung 糖仔
Wuqi 糖仔
Hsinchu 糖仔
Taitung 糖仔
Lukang 糖仔
Yilan 糖仔
Magong 金含仔
Penang 紅毛糖
Chaozhou 糖果
Shantou 糖果
Haikou 糖囝
Leizhou 糖糕糖囝
Pinghua Nanning
Wu Suzhou
Hangzhou
Wenzhou 糖兒
Jinhua 紙包糖
Tangxi 桔桔糖
Xiang Changsha 糖粒子

Compounds[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 6 “Kyōiku” kanji)

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia ja
Kanji in this term
とう
Grade: 6
on’yomi

Etymology[edit]

From Middle Chinese (dang, sugar).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

(hiragana とう, rōmaji , historical hiragana たう)

  1. sugar

References[edit]

  1. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9
  2. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, ISBN 978-4-14-011112-3

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

(dang, tang) (hangeul , , revised dang, tang, McCune-Reischauer tang, t'ang, Yale tang, thang)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Compounds[edit]


Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(đường)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.