共和

Definition from Wiktionary, the free dictionary
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Chinese[edit]

 
all together; in while; to share; common; general; together; total
 
mix together; peace; harmony; and; with; union; cap (a poem); respond in singing; soft; warm
simp. and trad.
(共和)
Wikipedia has an article on:
共和

Etymology[edit]

Gonghe Regency
Traditionally interpreted as "joint harmony", as during the Gonghe regency, the Zhou Dynasty was considered to be ruled jointly by two dukes; but according to the Bamboo Annals, the Gonghe regency was ruled by a single person—the Count of Gong (共伯), whose name was He (). This reading has almost certainly been confirmed by a bronze inscription.[1]
republic
Wasei kango (和製漢語), orthographically borrowed from Japanese  (きょう) () (kyōwa, republicanism), which was in turn a semantic readaptation of Chinese 共和 (gònghé, “Gonghe Regency”) (see above).

Pronunciation[edit]



Rime
Character
Reading # 2/2 1/2
Initial () (30) (33)
Final () (7) (95)
Tone (調) Departing (H) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open Closed
Division () III I
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ɡɨoŋH/ /ɦuɑ/
Pan
Wuyun
/ɡioŋH/ /ɦuɑ/
Shao
Rongfen
/ɡioŋH/ /ɣuɑ/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/guawŋH/ /ɦwa/
Li
Rong
/ɡioŋH/ /ɣuɑ/
Wang
Li
/ɡĭwoŋH/ /ɣuɑ/
Bernard
Karlgren
/gi̯woŋH/ /ɣuɑ/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
jiòng huó
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1 1/2
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
gòng
Middle
Chinese
‹ gjowngH › ‹ hwa ›
Old
Chinese
/*N-k(r)oŋʔ-s/ /*[ɢ]ˁoj/
English together, all harmonious

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 2/2 1/2
No. 4182 4932
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0 3
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*ɡloŋs/ /*ɡoːl/

Noun[edit]

共和

  1. republicanism; republic

Derived terms[edit]

Descendants[edit]

Sino-Xenic (共和):

See also[edit]

Proper noun[edit]

共和

  1. (historical) Gonghe Regency (interregnum period in Chinese history from 841 to 828 BCE)
  2. () Gonghe County (county in Qinghai province, China)

Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Kanji in this term
きょう
Grade: 4

Grade: 3
on’yomi

From Middle Chinese 共和 (gjowngH hwa)

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

共和 (hiragana きょうわ, rōmaji kyōwa)

  1. collaboration; cooperation; working together in harmony
  2. republicanism

Derived terms[edit]

Descendants[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  2. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN
  3. ^ 1997, 新明解国語辞典 (Shin Meikai Kokugo Jiten), Fifth Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN

Korean[edit]

Hanja in this term

Hanja[edit]

共和 (gonghwa) (hangeul 공화)

  1. Hanja form? of 공화 (universal harmony, republicanism).

Vietnamese[edit]

Hán tự in this word

Noun[edit]

共和

  1. Hán tự form of cộng hòa, (“republic”).