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See also: , , , , , and 𠬠
U+53C8, 又
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-53C8

[U+53C7]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+53C9]
U+2F1C, ⼜
KANGXI RADICAL AGAIN

[U+2F1B]
Kangxi Radicals
[U+2F1D]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
2 strokes
Stroke order
又-order.gif

Han character[edit]

(Kangxi radical 29, +0, 2 strokes, cangjie input 弓大 (NK), four-corner 17400 or 77400, composition)

  1. Kangxi radical #29, .
  2. Shuowen Jiezi radical №76

Derived characters[edit]

Descendants[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • KangXi: page 164, character 43
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 3115
  • Dae Jaweon: page 374, character 14
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 1, page 390, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+53C8

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Chu slip and silk script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
又-oracle.svg 又-bronze.svg 又-silk.svg 又-seal.svg 又-bigseal.svg

Pictogram (象形) – a right hand. Original form of (OC *ɢʷɯʔ, *ɢʷɯs, “right”).

Etymology[edit]

Adverbial derivation of (OC *ɢʷɯʔ, “to have; there is”) (Schuessler, 2007).

Pronunciation[edit]



Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (35)
Final () (136)
Tone (調) Departing (H)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ɦɨuH/
Pan
Wuyun
/ɦiuH/
Shao
Rongfen
/ɣiəuH/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ɦuwH/
Li
Rong
/ɣiuH/
Wang
Li
/ɣĭəuH/
Bernard
Karlgren
/i̯ə̯uH/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
yòu
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
jau6
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
yòu
Middle
Chinese
‹ hjuwH ›
Old
Chinese
/*[ɢ]ʷəʔ-s/
English also, in addition

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 15603
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*ɢʷɯs/

Definitions[edit]

  1. again; once more
    下雨  ―  Yòu xiàyǔ le!  ―  It's raining again!
      ―  xiǎng le yòu xiǎng  ―  to think and think; to deeply think about
    一次一次失敗 [MSC, trad.]
    一次一次失败 [MSC, simp.]
    yīcì yòu yīcì de shībài [Pinyin]
    failure after failure
  2. Used to express the coexistence of several conditions or qualities; both ... and ...
    聰明漂亮 / 聪明漂亮  ―  cōngmíng yòu piàoliang  ―  smart and pretty
    / 饿  ―  yòu è yòu kě.  ―  I am hungry and thirsty.
    怎麼 [MSC, trad.]
    怎么 [MSC, simp.]
    yòu xiǎng qù, yòu bù xiǎng qù, gāi zěnme bàn? [Pinyin]
    I want to go, but I also don't want to go, what should I do?
  3. also; in addition
    ·科學家藝術家 [MSC, trad.]
    ·科学家艺术家 [MSC, simp.]
    Dá Fēnqí shì kēxuéjiā, yòu shì yìshùjiā. [Pinyin]
    Leonardo da Vinci was a scientist also an artist.
  4. Used between a whole number and a fraction
    小時分鐘 / 小时分钟  ―  sì xiǎoshí yòu shí fēnzhōng  ―  four hours and ten minutes
      ―  èr yòu sān fēn zhī yī  ―  two and a third
  5. but; on the other hand
  6. Used in negative statements and rhetorical questions for emphasis
    這樣什麼好處 [MSC, trad.]
    这样什么好处 [MSC, simp.]
    Zhèyàng zuò duì nǐ yòu yǒu shénme hǎochù? [Pinyin]
    What good for you is there in doing that?
    唔係 [Cantonese, trad.]
    唔系 [Cantonese, simp.]
    go2 di1 je5 jau6 m4 hai6 ngo5 zou6, gwaan1 ngo5 me1 si6 ze1. [Jyutping]
    Why should I care about that! It's not like I did it.
    唔係冇錢 [Cantonese, trad.]
    唔系冇钱 [Cantonese, simp.]
    ngo5 jau6 m4 hai6 mou5 cin2. [Jyutping]
    It's not like I'm broke.

Usage notes[edit]

Compared to (zài) which is used for something that has not happened, (yòu) is used for something that already happened.

Synonyms[edit]

See also[edit]

  • (again): (zài)

Compounds[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(common “Jōyō” kanji)

  1. again, as well
  2. and
  3. also

Readings[edit]

Definitions[edit]

Kanji in this term
また
Grade: S
kun’yomi
For pronunciation and definitions of – see the following entry.
また
[adverb] again, as well
[conjunction] and, also
Alternative spellings
, , ,
(This term, , is an alternative spelling of the above term.)

Korean[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Middle Chinese (MC ɦɨuH).

Pronunciation[edit]

  • (SK Standard/Seoul) IPA(key): [u(ː)]
  • Phonetic hangul: [(ː)]
    • Though still prescriptive in Standard Korean, most speakers in both Koreas no longer distinguish vowel length.

Hanja[edit]

Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

Wikisource

(eumhun (tto u))

  1. Hanja form? of (again; and, also). [affix]

Compounds[edit]


Old Korean[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Both John B. Whitman and Alexander Francis-Ratté speculate of a connection to Proto-Japonic *wa (I; me), although Whitman and Francis-Ratté's belief that Korean and Japanese are genetically linked does not have consensus in the field.

Pronoun[edit]

(*wu)

  1. we, us
    • c. 1170, Interpretive gugyeol glosses to the Avatamsaka Sutra, vol. 35:
      [我]薄祐
      *wu-uy MWOM-un PAK.WU-hoy-a
      our bodies being poor in fortune
      (N.B. Gugyeol glyphs are given in non-abbreviated forms. Bracketed terms were ignored when read.)

Usage notes[edit]

This term is given as a native Korean equivalent of the Chinese first-person pronouns and in plural contexts (Chinese not making the distinction morphologically) in three different sources of Korean-language interpretive gugyeol glosses to the Buddhist canon, made between the tenth and thirteenth centuries. Interpretive gugyeol encodes guidelines by which a Korean speaker could have read out a Classical Chinese text in its native Korean translation, much like Japanese kanbun. These three sources accordingly instruct the Korean reader to pronounce the Chinese first-person pronouns as or , allowing us to understand that this is the Old Korean word for "we; us".

The Middle Korean first-person plural pronoun 우리 (wuli, we; us) is almost certainly derived from it, although the second syllable remains as of yet inexplicable.

Derived terms[edit]

Descendants[edit]

  • Middle Korean: 우리 (wuli, we; us)
    • Korean: 우리 (uri, we; us)

References[edit]

  • 황선엽 (Hwang Seon-yeop), 이전경 (Yi Jeon-gyeong), 하귀녀 (Ha Gwi-nyeo), 이용 (Yi Yong), 박진호 (Park Jin-ho), 김성주 (Kim Seong-ju), 장경준 (Jang Gyeong-jun), 서민욱 (Seo Min-uk), 이지영 (Yi Ji-yeong), 서형국 (Seo Hyeong-guk). (2009) 석독구결사전/釋讀口訣辭典 [Dictionary of interpretive gugyeol], Bakmunsa, →ISBN
  • 이병기 (Yi Byeong-gi) (2014), “Gugyeol jaryo-ui eohwi [Vocabulary in the gugyeol sources]”, in Gugyeol Yeon'gu, volume 33, pages 23–61

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

: Hán Việt readings: hựu[1][2][3][4][5], hữu[5]
: Nôm readings: lại[1]

  1. chữ Hán form of hựu (again).
  2. Nôm form of lại (again).

References[edit]

References[edit]