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U+795E, 神
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-795E

[U+795D]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+795F]
U+FA19, 神
CJK COMPATIBILITY IDEOGRAPH-FA19

[U+FA18]
CJK Compatibility Ideographs
[U+FA1A]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order (Mainland China)
9 strokes

Han character[edit]

(radical 113, +5, 10 strokes in traditional Chinese and Korean, 9 strokes in mainland China and Japanese, cangjie input 戈火中田中 (IFLWL), four-corner 35206, composition(GHTJV) or ⿰(K or U+FA19))

Derived characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 842, character 3
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 24673
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1261, character 2
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 4, page 2392, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+795E

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.
Wikipedia has articles on:

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han)
Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Small seal script
神-bronze.svg 神-silk.svg 神-seal.svg

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *hlin): semantic  (god; deity) + phonetic  (OC *hlin, lightning).

Originally in the oracle bone script and in some bronze inscriptions. The ancients feared the unpredictable lightning and considered it to be divine or of divine origin. was added for specialization.

Etymology[edit]

Possibly Sino-Tibetan; compare Chepang ग्‍लीङ्‌ह (gliŋh, spirit, mind, soul) (Schuessler, 2007)

Pronunciation 1[edit]



  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /ʂən³⁵/
Harbin /ʂən²⁴/
Tianjin /ʂən⁴⁵/
/sən⁴⁵/
Jinan /ʂẽ⁴²/
Qingdao /ʃə̃⁴²/
Zhengzhou /ʂən⁴²/
Xi'an /ʂẽ²⁴/
Xining /ʂə̃²⁴/
Yinchuan /ʂəŋ⁵³/
Lanzhou /ʂə̃n⁵³/
Ürümqi /ʂɤŋ⁵¹/
Wuhan /sən²¹³/
Chengdu /sən³¹/
Guiyang /sen²¹/
Kunming /ʂə̃³¹/
Nanjing /ʂən²⁴/
Hefei /ʂən⁵⁵/
Jin Taiyuan /səŋ¹¹/
Pingyao /ʂəŋ¹³/
Hohhot /sə̃ŋ³¹/
Wu Shanghai /zəŋ²³/
Suzhou /zən¹³/
Hangzhou /zen²¹³/
Wenzhou /zaŋ³¹/
Hui Shexian /ɕiʌ̃⁴⁴/
Tunxi /ɕian⁴⁴/
Xiang Changsha /ʂən¹³/
Xiangtan /ʂən¹²/
Gan Nanchang /sɨn⁴⁵/
Hakka Meixian /sən¹¹/
Taoyuan /ʃen¹¹/
Cantonese Guangzhou /sɐn²¹/
Nanning /sɐn²¹/
Hong Kong /sɐn²¹/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /sin³⁵/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /siŋ⁵³/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /seiŋ²¹/
Shantou (Min Nan) /siŋ⁵⁵/
Haikou (Min Nan) /tin³¹/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (27)
Final () (43)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ʑiɪn/
Pan
Wuyun
/ʑin/
Shao
Rongfen
/ʑjen/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ʑin/
Li
Rong
/d͡ʑiĕn/
Wang
Li
/d͡ʑĭĕn/
Bernard
Karlgren
/d͡ʑʰi̯ĕn/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
shén
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
shén
Middle
Chinese
‹ zyin ›
Old
Chinese
/*Cə.li[n]/
English spirit

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 11245
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*hlin/

Definitions[edit]

  1. (religion) god; deity; spirit
  2. spirit; soul; mind
  3. expression; countenance; appearance
  4. supernatural; magic; psychic
  5. A surname​. Shen
Usage notes[edit]

Different branches of Christianity use different terms for God:

  • (shén) and 上帝 (Shàngdì) are used by Protestants.
  • 天主 (Tiānzhǔ) is used by Roman Catholics.

Compounds[edit]

Descendants[edit]

Sino-Xenic ():
  • Japanese: (しん) (shin)
  • Korean: (, sin)
  • Vietnamese: thần ()

Pronunciation 2[edit]


Definitions[edit]

  1. Only used in 神荼 (Shēnshū).

Japanese[edit]

Shinjitai

Kyūjitai

Kanji[edit]

(grade 3 “Kyōiku” kanjishinjitai kanji, kyūjitai form )

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Kanji in this term
かみ
Grade: 3
kun’yomi
Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia ja
English Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia
English Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia

⟨kami2 → */kamɨ//kami/

From Old Japanese, ultimately from Proto-Japonic *kamuy.

Not related to (kami1 → kami, top, upper) or (kami, hair). Possibly cognate with Korean (geom, god, spirit).

Often appears in compounds as kamu- or kan-, indicating that kami is a bound or fused form deriving from */kamu.i/. Note that this final i may be the Old Japanese emphatic nominative particle (i), likely cognate with Korean nominative particle (i). Such fusion has occurred in other Japanese terms, such as (me, eye, from ma + i) or (sake, sake, liquor, from saka + i).

Compare Ainu カムィ (kamuy, god).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

(かみ) (kami

  1. (Shinto) a spirit or an essence present in all things, the main subject of worship of Shinto
  2. (by extension, religion) a deity, god
  3. (by extension) thunder
  4. a Shinto shrine
  5. a person of outstanding talent or skill
  6. (Internet slang, attributive) something amazing; great; fantastic; awesome
    (かみ)(きょく)kamikyokuamazing song
    (かみ)ゲーkamiamazing game
Citations[edit]

For quotations of use of this term, see Citations:神.

Derived terms[edit]
Descendants[edit]

Proper noun[edit]

(かみ) (Kami

  1. (Christianity) God
Citations[edit]

For quotations of use of this term, see Citations:神.

See also[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Kanji in this term
しん
Grade: 3
kan’on

From Middle Chinese (MC ʑiɪn). The 漢音 (kan'on, literally Han sound) reading, so likely a later borrowing from Middle Chinese.

Compare modern Mandarin (shén).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

(しん) (shin

  1. (religion) a deity, god, kami
  2. a mysterious or incomprehensible force, compare English act of God
  3. a mind, soul, spirit
  4. Short for 神道 (shintō): Shinto
Derived terms[edit]

Affix[edit]

(しん) (shin

  1. deity, god, kami
  2. mysterious or incomprehensible force
  3. mind, soul, spirit
  4. Short for 神道 (shintō): Shinto
  5. Short for 神戸 (Kōbe): Kobe
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

Kanji in this term
じん
Grade: 3
goon

From Middle Chinese (MC ʑiɪn).

The 呉音 (goon, literally Wu sound) reading, so likely the earlier borrowing from Middle Chinese.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

(じん) (jin

  1. (rare) Same as しん (shin) above

Affix[edit]

(じん) (jin

  1. deity, god, kami
  2. mysterious or incomprehensible force
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 4[edit]

Kanji in this term

Grade: 3
Irregular
Alternative spelling

⟨mi1 → */mʲi//mi/

From Old Japanese.

Cognate with (mi-), an honorific prefix originally used to refer to gods and other high-status objects.

Noun[edit]

() (mi

  1. (rare) a god or spirit
Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN
  2. 2.0 2.1 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

(eumhun 귀신 (gwisin sin))

  1. Hanja form? of (ghost; spirit; phantom; god).

Okinawan[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 3 “Kyōiku” kanjishinjitai kanji, kyūjitai form )

Readings[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Kanji in this term
かみ
Grade: 3
kun’yomi

From Proto-Ryukyuan *kami.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

(hiragana かみ, rōmaji kami)

  1. a spirit or an essence present in all things
  2. a god, deity

References[edit]

  1. ^ カミ” in Okinawa Center of Language Study, Shuri-Naha Dialect Dictionary.

Old Japanese[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Proto-Japonic *kamuy.

Can be parsed as a compound of unbound apophonic (kamu) +‎ (i(2), emphatic nominative particle).

Noun[edit]

(kami2) (kana かみ)

  1. a spirit or an essence present in all things
  2. a god, deity
  3. (by extension) an Emperor or Empress regnant of Japan
  4. an evil spirit, such as a snake or wild beast
Citations[edit]

For quotations of use of this term, see Citations:神.

Derived terms[edit]
Descendants[edit]
  • Japanese: (kami)

Etymology 2[edit]

Cognate with (mi1-), an honorific prefix originally used to refer to gods and other high-status objects.

Alternative forms[edit]

Noun[edit]

(mi1) (kana )

  1. (rare) a god or spirit
Derived terms[edit]
Descendants[edit]

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

: Hán Việt readings: thần[1][2][3]
: Nôm readings: thần[1][2], thằn[1], thườn[3]

  1. Hán tự form of thần (deity).

Compounds[edit]

References[edit]