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Translingual[edit]

Han character[edit]

(radical 117 +5, 10 strokes, cangjie input 卜廿卜口 (YTYR), four-corner 01160)

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 870, character 29
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 25742
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1300, character 23
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 4, page 2707, character 28
  • Unihan data for U+7AD9

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.

Alternative forms[edit]

Glyph origin[edit]

Phono-semantic compound (形聲): semantic  + phonetic . A relatively late character – not found in Shuowen; found in Guangyun.

Pronunciation[edit]


Dialectal pronunciations ()
Variety Location 站 (立)
Mandarin Beijing /ʈ͡ʂan⁵¹/
Harbin /ʈ͡ʂan⁵³/
Tianjin /t͡san⁵³/
Jinan /ʈ͡ʂã²¹/
Qingdao /ʈ͡ʂã⁴²/
Zhengzhou /ʈ͡ʂan³¹²/
Xi'an /t͡sã⁴⁴/
Xining /t͡sã²¹³/
Yinchuan /ʈ͡ʂan¹³/
Lanzhou /ʈ͡ʂɛ̃n¹³/
Ürümqi /t͡san²¹³/
Wuhan /t͡san³⁵/
Chengdu /t͡san¹³/
Guiyang /t͡san²¹³/
Kunming /ʈ͡ʂã̠²¹²/
Nanjing /ʈ͡ʂaŋ⁴⁴/
Hefei /ʈ͡ʂæ̃⁵³/
Jin Taiyuan /t͡sæ̃⁴⁵/
Pingyao
Hohhot /t͡sæ̃⁵⁵/
Wu Shanghai /ze¹³/
Suzhou /ze̞³¹/
Hangzhou /d͡zẽ̞¹³/
Wenzhou /d͡za²²/
Hui Shexian /t͡sʰɛ²²/
Tunxi
Xiang Changsha /t͡san⁵⁵/
Xiangtan /t͡san⁵⁵/
Gan Nanchang /t͡san⁴⁵/
Hakka Meixian /t͡san⁵³/
Taoyuan /tʃɑm⁵⁵/
Cantonese Guangzhou /t͡sam²²/
Nanning /t͡sam²²/
Hong Kong /t͡sam²²/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /t͡sam²²/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /t͡saŋ²¹²/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /t͡saŋ³³/
Shantou (Min Nan) /t͡sam³⁵/
Haikou (Min Nan) /tam³³/
Middle Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Character (), Pronunciation 1/1

Initial: (9)
Final:
Division: II

Openness: Open
Tone: Departing (H)

Fanqie:
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Bernard
Karlgren
Li
Rong
Pan
Wuyun
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Wang
Li
Shao
Rongfen
/ʈɣɛmH/ /ȶămH/ /ȶɐmH/ /ʈɯæmH/ /ʈəɨmH/ /ȶɐmH/ /ȶɐmH/
Old Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character No. Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
Corresponding
MC rime
Old Chinese Notes
16695 2 𪉜 /*rteːms/

Etymology 1[edit]

"To stand": A Northern Chinese word attested since 9-10th centuries. Displaced earlier () in most modern northern Chinese varieties.

Definitions[edit]

  1. to stand
    起來 / 起来  ―  zhànqǐlái  ―  stand up
  2. to stop, to halt
  3. (figuratively) to take a firm stance; to uphold the stand
Synonyms[edit]
  • (to stand):
    (literary, dialectal Mandarin, Wu)
    (Cantonese, Min, Hakka)
    (dialectal Wu, Min)

Etymology 2[edit]

Generally considered to be a Mongolian influence in the Yuan Dynasty – an abbreviation of 站赤 (“post stations during the Yuan Dynasty”), from Middle Mongolian ᠵᠠᠮᠴᠢ ‎(ǰamči, post station) (> Mongolian замч ‎(zamč, guide; cicerone)), a derivative of Middle Mongolian ᠵᠠᠮ ‎(ǰam, way, path) (> Mongolian зам ‎(zam)).

Mongolian ǰam is undoubtedly cognate with Proto-Turkic *jam ‎(post station) (> Turkish yam; ~ Russian ям ‎(jam)) with the same meaning; see Yam (route). Starostin considers the Turkic form a descendant of Proto-Altaic *ńi̯àmi ‎(trace) and related to Proto-Mongolian *ǯim ("path, trace"; > Mongolian ᠵᠢᠮ ‎(ǰim) / жим ‎(žim)). Also compare Turkish yamçı ‎(post rider), Russian ямщи́к ‎(jamščík, drive, coachman).

There is no scholarly consensus regarding the direction of borrowing. Generally it is believed that Turkic jam and Chinese zhàn are loanwords from Mongolian ǰam, however some (e.g. Tuymebayev in Казахско-монгольские лексические параллели) believe the directionality is reversed (i.e. Chinese "to stand > stand > station" → Middle Mongolian → Turkic → Russian). Whatever the etymology, what is apparent is that the word jam has been around for a long time and was used by Central Asians to designate a key postal relay station or official.

In Chinese, this word has been competing with the native equivalent (, “post station”) since its introduction. Mongol-ruled Yuan Dynasty saw the profusion of use of zhàn, which was deliberately suppressed in the succeeding Ming Dynasty in favour of . Both were used in the subsequent Qing Dynasty, with zhàn eventually predominating in the modern times, being used to render the sense of "station" in modern concepts, such as "train station". Other Sinosphere countries show preference variations too: Vietnamese uses (trạm), whereas Japanese and Korean still use for "station" (Japanese ‎(えき, eki), Korean (, yeok)).

Definitions[edit]

  1. post station; relay station
  2. station; stand
    火車 / 火车  ―  huǒchēzhàn  ―  railway station

Compounds[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(uncommon “Hyōgai” kanji)

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Readings[edit]


Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

‎(cham) (hangeul , McCune-Reischauer ch'am, Yale cham)

  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(trạm, trậm)

  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.