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See also: and 彿
U+4F5B, 佛
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-4F5B

[U+4F5A]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+4F5C]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
7 strokes

Han character[edit]

(radical 9, +5, 7 strokes, cangjie input 人中中弓 (OLLN), four-corner 25227, composition)

Derived characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 99, character 4
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 517
  • Dae Jaweon: page 208, character 11
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 1, page 140, character 3
  • Unihan data for U+4F5B

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.
alternative forms
Wikipedia has an article on:

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
佛-seal.svg 佛-bigseal.svg



References:

Mostly from Richard Sears' Chinese Etymology site (authorisation),
which in turn draws data from various collections of ancient forms of Chinese characters, including:

  • Shuowen Jiezi (small seal),
  • Jinwen Bian (bronze inscriptions),
  • Liushutong (Liushutong characters) and
  • Yinxu Jiaguwen Bian (oracle bone script).

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *bɯd): semantic + phonetic (OC *pɯd).

Etymology 1[edit]

Abbreviation of 佛陀 (MC bɨut̚ dɑ), from Pali buddha or Sanskrit बुद्ध (buddha, awakened, enlightened).

Pronunciation[edit]


Note: fiit6 - used in some compounds, e.g. 佛手, 佛七.
Note:
  • Xiamen, Quanzhou, Taiwan:
    • pu̍t - vernacular;
    • hu̍t - literary.
  • (Teochew)
  • Wu
  • Xiang

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /fo³⁵/
    Harbin /fɤ²⁴/
    Tianjin /fo⁴⁵/
    Jinan /fə⁴²/
    Qingdao /fu⁴²/
    Zhengzhou /fu⁴²/
    Xi'an /fo²⁴/
    Xining /fɔ²⁴/
    Yinchuan /fu¹³/
    /fuə⁵³/
    Lanzhou /fə⁵³/
    Ürümqi /fɤ⁵¹/
    Wuhan /fu²¹³/
    Chengdu /fu³¹/
    /fəu³¹/
    Guiyang /fu²¹/
    Kunming /fu³¹/
    Nanjing /fuʔ⁵/
    Hefei /fəʔ⁵/
    Jin Taiyuan /fəʔ⁵⁴/
    Pingyao /xuʌʔ⁵³/
    Hohhot /fɤ³¹/
    Wu Shanghai /vəʔ¹/
    Suzhou /vəʔ³/
    Hangzhou /vəʔ²/
    Wenzhou /vai²¹³/
    Hui Shexian /fu²²/
    Tunxi /fə¹¹/
    Xiang Changsha /fu²⁴/
    Xiangtan /ɸu⁵⁵/
    Gan Nanchang /fɨʔ²/
    Hakka Meixian /fut̚⁵/
    Taoyuan /fut̚⁵⁵/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /fɐt̚²/
    Nanning /fɐt̚²²/
    Hong Kong /fɐt̚²/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /hut̚⁵/
    /put̚⁵/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /huʔ⁵/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /xo⁴⁴/
    /xu²⁴/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /huk̚⁵/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /ʔbut̚³/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (3)
    Final () (60)
    Tone (調) Checked (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Closed
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /bɨut̚/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /biut̚/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /biuət̚/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /but̚/
    Li
    Rong
    /biuət̚/
    Wang
    Li
    /bĭuət̚/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /bʱi̯uət̚/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    Expected
    Cantonese
    Reflex
    fat6
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ bjut ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*[b][u]t/
    English great

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 3324
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    1
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*bɯd/

    Definitions[edit]

    Weathered 佛 sticker

    1. (Buddhism) Buddha
        ―  tuó  ―  Buddha
        ―  jiào  ―  Buddhism
    2. (Buddhism) statue of Buddha
    3. (by extension) Buddhist scriptures
    4. (by extension) Buddhism; Buddhist doctrines

    Descendants[edit]

    Sino-Xenic ():
    • Japanese: (ふつ) (futsu); (ぶつ) (butsu)
    • Korean: (, bul)
    • Vietnamese: Phật (), Bụt ()

    Others:

    Compounds[edit]

    Etymology 2[edit]

    For pronunciation and definitions of – see 彿 (“resembling, like, as if”).
    (This character, , is the simplified and variant traditional form of 彿.)
    Notes:

    Etymology 3[edit]

    Pronunciation[edit]


    Definitions[edit]

    1. Alternative form of (, “to go against; to be contrary to”).

    Compounds[edit]

    Etymology 4[edit]

    Pronunciation[edit]


    Definitions[edit]

    1. Alternative form of (, “to assist”).
    2. A surname​.

    Etymology 5[edit]

    Pronunciation[edit]


    Definitions[edit]

    1. Alternative form of (, “prosperous, thriving”).

    References[edit]


    Japanese[edit]

    Shinjitai

    Kyūjitai

    Kanji[edit]

    (“Jinmeiyō” kanji used for nameskyūjitai kanji, shinjitai form )

    1. Kyūjitai form of

    Readings[edit]

    Defenitions[edit]

    For pronunciation and definitions of – see the following entry.
    ほとけ5
    [noun] (Buddhism) a buddha (enlightened or awakened sentient being)
    [noun] (Buddhism) a statue or image of any buddha
    [noun] a departed soul, deceased
    [noun] (colloquial) a term that a parent calls a child expressing parental affection, equivalent to “my dear
    [noun] (religion) Buddhism
    [noun] (Buddhism) performing a Buddhist memorial service
    [proper noun] (Buddhism) the Sakyamuni Buddha, Nepalese spiritual and philosophical teacher and founder of Buddhism: Siddhartha Gautama
    [proper noun] (Buddhism) any of the other buddhas named in Buddhist scriptures
    ぶつ5
    [noun] (religion) Buddhism
    [proper noun] Short for 仏陀 (Butsuda, Budda): Buddha
    [affix] Buddha
    [affix] Buddhism
    [affix] Buddhist image
    ふつ5
    [proper noun] Short for フランス (Furansu): France
    (This term, , is an alternative spelling of the above terms.)

    Korean[edit]

    Etymology[edit]

    From Middle Chinese (MC bɨut̚).

    Historical Readings
    Dongguk Jeongun Reading
    Dongguk Jeongun, 1448 뿌ᇙ〮 (Yale: ppwúlq)
    Middle Korean
    Text Eumhun
    Gloss (hun) Reading
    Hunmong Jahoe, 1527[2] 부텨 (Yale: Pwùthyè) 불〮 (Yale: pwúl)

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Hanja[edit]

    Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

    Wikisource

    (eumhun 부처 (bucheo bul))

    1. Hanja form? of (Buddha).
    2. Hanja form? of (France (in compounds, in news media)).

    Compounds[edit]

    Proper noun[edit]

    Hanja in this term

    (Bul) (hangeul )

    1. (in news headlines) Short for ()()西() (Bullanseo, France).

    Usage notes[edit]

    A common convention in news headlines, this is almost always written solely in the Hanja form, even in contemporary Korean text otherwise devoid of any Hanja.

    References[edit]

    • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [3]

    Old Japanese[edit]

    Etymology[edit]

    Most likely from Proto-Korean *Pwutukye (Buddha).

    Noun[edit]

    (*poto2ke2) (kana ほとけ)

    1. (Buddhism) a carving, image, statue, or other likeness of a buddha
      • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 16, poem 3841), text here
        造眞朱不足者水渟池田乃阿曾我鼻上乎穿禮
        *poto2ke2 tukuru ma-so2po tarazupa mi1du tamaru Ike2da no2 aso2 ga pana no2 upe2 wo pore
        For the Buddha statue, you lack enough vermilion―so there is the puddle of Lord “Pond Field” Ikeda, dig in that big red nose.[1]

    Descendants[edit]

    • Japanese: (hotoke)

    References[edit]

    1. ^ Jin'ichi Konishi (2017) Aileen Gatten, Nicholas Teele, transl.; , Earl Roy Miner, editor, A History of Japanese Literature, Volume 1: The Archaic and Ancient Ages (Volume 4935 of Princeton Legacy Library), Princeton University Press, →ISBN, page 415

    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    : Hán Việt readings: phật ((phù)(vật)(thiết))[1][2][3][4][5], phất[3]
    : Nôm readings: phật[1][2][3][4][6]

    1. Hán tự form of Phật (Buddha, the Enlightened One).
    2. Hán tự form of Phật (Buddhism).

    Compounds[edit]

    References[edit]


    Zhuang[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    1. Sawndip form of baed (Buddha; shrine; spirit; god)