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See also: , , Z, and
U+4E59, 乙
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-4E59

[U+4E58]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+4E5A]
U+2F04, ⼄
KANGXI RADICAL SECOND

[U+2F03]
Kangxi Radicals
[U+2F05]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
乙-order.gif

Han character[edit]

(radical 5, +0, 1 stroke, cangjie input 弓山 (NU), four-corner 17710)

  1. Kangxi radical #5, .

Derived characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 83, character 15
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 161
  • Dae Jaweon: page 167, character 7
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 1, page 47, character 4
  • Unihan data for U+4E59

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
乙-oracle.svg 乙-bronze.svg 乙-silk.svg 乙-seal.svg 乙-bigseal.svg





References:

Mostly from Richard Sears' Chinese Etymology site (authorisation),
which in turn draws data from various collections of ancient forms of Chinese characters, including:

  • Shuowen Jiezi (small seal),
  • Jinwen Bian (bronze inscriptions),
  • Liushutong (Liushutong characters) and
  • Yinxu Jiaguwen Bian (oracle bone script).

Unknown. Different ancient texts propose different origins.

  • Pictogram (象形) – a developing plant (Shuowen).
  • Pictogram (象形) – the intestine of a fish (Erya).
  • Pictogram (象形) – the gill bone of a fish (Liji Zhengyi (《禮記正義》)

The character must not be confused with 𠃉 > 鳦.

Pronunciation[edit]



Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (34)
Final () (49)
Tone (調) Checked (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () Chongniu III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ʔˠiɪt̚/
Pan
Wuyun
/ʔᵚit̚/
Shao
Rongfen
/ʔiet̚/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ʔjit̚/
Li
Rong
/ʔjĕt̚/
Wang
Li
/ĭĕt̚/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ʔi̯ĕt̚/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
yi
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
jat1
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle
Chinese
‹ ʔit ›
Old
Chinese
/*qrət/
English 2nd heavenly stem

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 14921
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
2
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*qriɡ/
Notes ɡd

Definitions[edit]

  1. The second of the ten heavenly stems (天干 (tiāngān))
  2. second; 2; B; II; beta (used for unnamed people or objects, to enumerate headings in a list, for grades, etc.)
    路人路人  ―  lùrén jiǎ hé lùrén   ―  passerby A and passerby B
    法語成績 [MSC, trad.]
    法语成绩 [MSC, simp.]
    Tā fǎyǔ chéngjì dé le . [Pinyin]
    He got a B in French.
      ―  gān  ―  hepatitis B
  3. (chemistry) eth-; ethyl
      ―  wán  ―  ethane
  4. the seventh scale degree in Gongche musical notation (工尺譜工尺谱 (gōngchěpǔ))
  5. (literary, formal) one
    公文)……  ―  (gōngwén)...... Jiā fèn.  ―  (In official letters) …added one copy.
  6. A surname​.

Coordinate terms[edit]

Compounds[edit]

See also[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(common “Jōyō” kanji)

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Kanji in this term
おつ
Grade: S
on’yomi

Originally from Middle Chinese (MC ʔˠiɪt̚), arising from the proper noun sense. Appears in texts from at least 833 CE.[1]

Pronunciation[edit]

Proper noun[edit]

Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia ja

(おつ) (Otsu

  1. the second of the ten Celestial Stems

Noun[edit]

(おつ) (otsu

  1. something B
    1. the second item of any ordered list
    2. (music) one tone lower than the note indicated by (, something A)
    3. (by extension from the musical sense) a lower, sonorous and moving sound or tone
    4. (noh theater) in noh musical accompaniment, a specific kind of muffled drum beat played by striking the head of the taiko drum and keeping the mallet pressed against the head
  2. (Kansai dialect, slang) a stupid person, someone who is slow on the uptake
  3. (rare, possibly archaic) the state or circumstances of a thing
  4. (rare, possibly archaic) dressing up in an odd fashion

Etymology 2[edit]

Kanji in this term
おつ
Grade: S
on’yomi

By extension from the moving tone noun sense. Appears in texts from the late Edo period, in the early 1800s.[1]

Pronunciation[edit]

Adjective[edit]

(おつ) (otsu-na (adnominal (おつ) (otsu na), adverbial (おつ) (otsu ni))

  1. out of the ordinary, strange or unusual in an interesting or stylish way
  2. strange, odd, weird
    • :ja:東海道中膝栗毛 (Tōkaidōchū Hizakurige, “Footing It along the Tokaido Road”, or “Shank's Mare”), serial published 1802-1814:
      ヲヤ()()さん、おつ()つきをしておめへ(なに)をする
      Oya Yaji-san, otsu na tetsuki o shite omē nani o suru
      Oy, Yaji, what do you think you're doing with your weird way of using your hands?
Inflection[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

Kanji in this term
おつ
Grade: S
on’yomi

Derived as aggressive clipping of お疲れ様です (otsukaresama desu, used as a kind of greeting at work, literally that's honorable exhaustion (from hard work)). The use of for the spelling is an example of phonetic ateji (当て字).

Pronunciation[edit]

Interjection[edit]

(おつ) (otsu

  1. (Internet slang) Clipping of お疲れ様です (otsukaresama desu).

Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 4[edit]

Kanji in this term
きのと
Grade: S
kun’yomi

Compound of (Ki, Wood, one of the Five Elements) +‎ (no, attributive marker) +‎ (oto, younger brother).

Pronunciation[edit]

Proper noun[edit]

(きのと) (Kinoto

  1. the second of the ten Heavenly Stems

References[edit]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

(eumhun (sae eul))

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

References[edit]


Middle Korean[edit]

Particle[edit]

(-ol)

  1. Idu script spelling of ᄋᆞᆯ (-ol, accusative case marker)
    • 1395, 高士褧 (Go Sa-gyeong), 大明律直解 (Daemyeongnyul Jikhae) [Correct Translation of the Great Ming Code]:
      本國背叛
      PWON.KWUK-ul POY.PAN
      Betray his native country

Old Korean[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From a Late Middle Chinese pronunciation of (MC ʔˠiɪt̚), which lenited coda /-t/ to /-r/.[1]

Phonogram[edit]

(*-r)

  1. A consonantal phonogram denoting coda consonant *-r
Usage notes[edit]

Generally believed to have been pronounced as *-r, based both on internal evidence and the Chinese etymon. Old Korean (*-l) and (*-r) both merged unconditionally into *-l in Middle Korean, but the two phonograms were consistently distinguished in Old Korean until the late thirteenth century. Because Old Korean reconstructions are conventionally romanized using their Middle Korean reflex, the phonologically erroneous reconstruction *-l is often used as a shorthand.

Etymology 2[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

  • (*-(u)r, *-hur)

Particle[edit]

(*-(u)r)

  1. Accusative case marker
Usage notes[edit]

In Middle and Modern Korean, the allomorph taken by the accusative marker after a vowel may be (-reul) instead of (-l), especially in formal speech. This is the result of reduplication of the particle and is unlikely to have been present in Old Korean, although the phonologically opaque nature of the orthography makes it difficult to tell for sure.

In "Middle Old Korean", the late first-millennium stage of Korean represented by about a dozen mostly eighth-century poems, the accusative particle was consistently written with the phonogram . has become dominant by the twelve poems of the tenth-century monk Gyunyeo, however, and is virtually not attested at all by the second millennium. There seems to be no semantic difference involved. Whether this represents a phonetic shift or simply a change in orthographic practice is unknown, although and had differing Middle Chinese initials.[2][3]

Descendants[edit]
  • Middle Korean: ᄋᆞᆯ/ (-(o/u)l, accusative marker)
    • Korean: (-(eu)l, accusative case marker)

References[edit]

  1. ^ Alexander Vovin, Old Korean and Proto-Korean *r and *l revisited
  2. ^ 이승재 (Yi Seung-jae) (2000) , “차자표기 자료의 격조사 연구 [A study of case markers in Sinographic sources]”, in Gugeo gungmunhak, volume 127, pages 107—132
  3. ^ 황선엽 (Hwang Seon-yeop) (2008) , “삼국유사와 균여전의 향찰 표기자 비교 [A comparison of the orthography of the hyangchal of the Samguk yusa and the Gyunyeo-jeon]”, in Gugeohak, volume 51, pages 279—311

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

: Hán Nôm readings: ất, át, ắc, ắt, hắt, ặc, lớt

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

References[edit]