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See also: , , , , , and 𡰣
U+5C38, 尸
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-5C38

[U+5C37]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+5C39]
U+2F2B, ⼫
KANGXI RADICAL CORPSE

[U+2F2A]
Kangxi Radicals
[U+2F2C]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
尸-order.gif

Han character[edit]

(radical 44, +0, 3 strokes, cangjie input 尸 (S), four-corner 77207, composition丿)

  1. Kangxi radical #44, .

Derived characters[edit]

Descendants[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 299, character 26
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 7630
  • Dae Jaweon: page 595, character 7
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 2, page 963, character 14
  • Unihan data for U+5C38

Chinese[edit]

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Bronze inscriptions Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Qin slip script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
尸-bronze-shang.svg 尸-oracle.svg 尸-bronze.svg 尸-slip.svg 尸-seal.svg 尸-bigseal.svg

Pictogram (象形) - A man with his legs bending, and a side to the front. The picture is variously interpreted as either sitting or lying.

When used as a radical, 尸 is usually derived from a variation of or , as in .

Etymology 1[edit]

simp. and trad.

Pronunciation[edit]


Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (26)
Final () (15)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ɕiɪ/
Pan
Wuyun
/ɕi/
Shao
Rongfen
/ɕjɪ/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ɕi/
Li
Rong
/ɕi/
Wang
Li
/ɕi/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ɕi/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
shī
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
shī
Middle
Chinese
‹ syij ›
Old
Chinese
/*l̥̥[ə]j/
English corpse

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 11396
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
2
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*hli/

Definitions[edit]

  1. a living person who represents the dead person during a rite

Compounds[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

For pronunciation and definitions of – see (“corpse; carcass”).
(This character, , is the simplified form of .)
Notes:

Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(uncommon “Hyōgai” kanji)

  1. corpse; cadaver

Readings[edit]

Noun[edit]

Kanji in this term
しかばね
Hyōgaiji
kun’yomi
Kanji in this term
かばね
Hyōgaiji
kun’yomi

(かばね) (kabane (alternative reading hiragana しかばね, rōmaji shikabane)

  1. Alternative spelling of (corpse; cadaver)

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

(eum (si))

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Old Korean[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Most likely from the Old Chinese initial of (OC *hli). Other, but less likely, hypotheses include that it was a graphic abbreviation of some other character with initial */l/ (but no such character has been easily identified), or that it was invented in Korea (but there would appear to be no motivation for this, given the commonness of /l/ in all stages of Chinese).

Phonogram[edit]

(*-l or *-lh)

  1. A consonantal phonogram denoting coda consonant *-l or *-lh.
    (road, logogram) + ‎ (*-l, coda-marking phonogram) → ‎道尸 (*KIl(h), road)
    (two, logogram) + ‎ (*-l, coda-marking phonogram) → ‎二尸 (*TWUPUl(h), two)
Usage notes[edit]

Note that Old Korean distinguished liquid (*-l) and rhotic (*-r), though the two merged in Middle Korean.

See also[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Suffix[edit]

(*-lq)

  1. The irrealis/prospective verbal gerund-marking suffix:
    1. what will, one who will, what to, what is, one who is, etc.; used to nominalize a verb in the future or in a general sense.
      • c. 1250, Interpretive gugyeol glosses to the Yogācārabhūmi-Śāstra, page 11.117:
        [於]思惟良中隨逐
        *SO.YU-hoyo-l PA-akuy UY-i SYU.TYUK-hoyo-lq Is-umye
        As there is the following of doubt in that which one reflects
        (N.B. Gugyeol glyphs are given in non-abbreviated forms. Bracketed terms were ignored when read.)
      • c. 1250, Interpretive gugyeol glosses to the Humane King Sutra, page 3.10—11:
        作樂
        CAK.AK-ho-lq-two STWO-ho-n [?]-s-ho-si-ha
        The [honored] ones who make music [the honored music-makers] also did as such
        (N.B. Gugyeol glyphs are given in non-abbreviated forms.)
    2. which will, [something] to, which is, etc.; used as an adnominal, but chiefly for dependent nouns and certain common constructions.
      • 765, 忠談師 (Chungdamsa), “安民歌 (Anmin-ga)”, in 三國遺事 (Samguk Yusa) [Memorabilia of the Three Kingdoms]:
        君隱父也臣隱愛賜母史也
        *NIMKUM-un AP-ye SIN-un TOSU-si-lq Esi-ye
        The sovereign is a father; the ministers are loving mothers
      • c. 1250, Interpretive gugyeol glosses to the Yogācārabhūmi-Śāstra, page 11.117:
        [於]思惟良中隨逐
        *SO.YU-hoyo-lq PA-akuy UY-i SYU.TYUK-hoyo-l Is-umye
        As there is the following of doubt in that which one reflects
        (N.B. Gugyeol glyphs are given in non-abbreviated forms. Bracketed terms were ignored when read.)
    3. Used to introduce a statement being quoted.
Descendants[edit]
  • Middle Korean: 으ᇙ〮 (-(ú)lq, verbal irrealis particle, generally adnominal)
    • Korean: (-(eu)l, irrealis adnominal suffix)
  • Middle Korean: 리〮 (-lí)
    • Korean: (-ri)
  • Middle Korean: 리〮 (-lí)
  • Middle Korean: 려〮 (-lyé)
    • Korean: (-rya)
  • Middle Korean: 료〮 (-lyó)
    • Korean: (-ryo)
  • Middle Korean: 으ᇙ〮가〮 (-(ú)lqká)
  • Middle Korean: 으ᇙ〮고〮 (-(ú)lqkwó)
  • Middle Korean: 으ᇙ〮다〮 (-(ú)lqtá)
  • Middle Korean: 을〮뎬〮 (-(ú)ltyéyn)
  • Middle Korean: 을〮ᄉᆞ록〮 (-(ú)lsòlwók)
See also[edit]
  • (*-n, realis gerund)

Etymology 3[edit]

Particle[edit]

(*-lq or *-q or *-s)

  1. A genitive case marker chiefly attested after honored animate nouns.
Usage notes[edit]

There is a strong argument that represents an allomorphic variant of the well-known genitive particle (*-s) rather than an independent genitive case marker. Middle Korean (-lq) and Modern Korean (-l) both have the effect of tensing a subsequent consonant. Tensing was also one of the major allomorphs of Middle Korean (-s), see ㅅ#Alternative forms, and is virtually the sole effect of Modern Korean (-s-). Therefore, Old Korean was most likely used to denote the tensing effect of (*-s).

This notion is further supported by the fact that Middle Korean (-s) is the regular reflex of . For instance, Old Korean 尸中 (*qkuy, honorific dative marker) > Middle Korean ᄭᅴ (skuy, id.) > Modern Korean (kke, id.)

References[edit]

  • 황선엽 (Hwang Seon-yeop) et al. (2009) 석독구결사전/釋讀口訣辭典 [Dictionary of interpretive gugyeol], Bakmunsa, →ISBN, pages 411—549
  • 장윤희 (Jang Yun-hui) (2011) , “석독구결의 속격 "-시(尸)"의 문제 해결을 위하여 [For a solution to the problem of genitive 尸 in interpretive gugyeol]”, in Gugyeol Yeon'gu, volume 27, pages 117–144
  • Nam Pung-hyun (2012) , “Old Korean”, in The Languages of Japan and Korea, Routledge, →ISBN, pages 41–72
  • 이병기 (Yi Byeong-gi) (2019) , “고대국어 동명사 어미의 문법적 특징과 과제 [The grammatical features of Old Korean verbal nominalizers and further tasks for research]”, in Gugyeol Yeon'gu, volume 43, DOI:10.17001/kugyol.2019..43.003, pages 89–125

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

: Hán Nôm readings: thi

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.