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See also: and
U+79CB, 秋
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-79CB

[U+79CA]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+79CC]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
9 strokes
Stroke order
秋-order.gif

Han character[edit]

(radical 115, +4, 9 strokes, cangjie input 竹木火 (HDF), four-corner 29980, composition)

Derived characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 850, character 6
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 24940
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1273, character 2
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 4, page 2595, character 5
  • Unihan data for U+79CB

Chinese[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

simp. and trad.
alternative forms

Unclear. Schuessler (2007) minimally reconstructed OC *tshiu < Proto-Chinese *C-nh(i)u and proposed its cognacy to either:

(OC *(n)hiu) "to reap, harvest, gather"; or
(OC *tsut) "to finish, end, die", as vegetation dies in autumn; additionally in Zuozhuan, this word's referent was winter's dead vegetation.

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shang Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Bronze inscriptions Oracle bone script Chu Slip and silk script Qin slip script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
秋-bronze-shang.svg 秋-oracle.svg 秋-silk.svg 秋-slip.svg 秋-seal.svg 秋-bigseal.svg

The oracle bone forms and bronze inscriptions show the pictogram (象形) of a cricket or a locust, sometimes with a fire glyph underneath. In its later form, became a Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *sʰɯw): semantic (rice) + abbreviated phonetic 𤒅 (). Often thought of as an Ideogrammic compound (會意): (grain) + (fire); after harvesting the grain, the fields are burned to kill locusts and their eggs.

Pronunciation[edit]



  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /t͡ɕʰiou⁵⁵/
Harbin /t͡ɕʰiou⁴⁴/
Tianjin /t͡ɕʰiou²¹/
Jinan /t͡ɕʰiou²¹³/
Qingdao /t͡sʰiou²¹³/
Zhengzhou /t͡sʰiou²⁴/
Xi'an /t͡ɕʰiou²¹/
Xining /t͡ɕʰiɯ⁴⁴/
Yinchuan /t͡ɕʰiəu⁴⁴/
Lanzhou /t͡ɕʰiou³¹/
Ürümqi /t͡ɕʰiɤu⁴⁴/
Wuhan /t͡ɕʰʰiəu⁵⁵/
Chengdu /t͡ɕʰiəu⁵⁵/
Guiyang /t͡ɕʰiəu⁵⁵/
Kunming /t͡ɕʰiəu⁴⁴/
Nanjing /t͡sʰiəɯ³¹/
Hefei /t͡ɕʰiɯ²¹/
Jin Taiyuan /t͡ɕʰiəu¹¹/
Pingyao /t͡ɕʰiəu¹³/
Hohhot /t͡ɕʰiəu³¹/
Wu Shanghai /t͡ɕʰiɤ⁵³/
Suzhou /t͡sʰɤ⁵⁵/
Hangzhou /t͡ɕʰiø³³/
Wenzhou /t͡ɕʰɤu³³/
Hui Shexian /t͡sʰiu³¹/
Tunxi /t͡sʰiu¹¹/
Xiang Changsha /t͡sʰiəu³³/
Xiangtan /t͡sʰiəɯ³³/
Gan Nanchang /t͡ɕʰiu⁴²/
Hakka Meixian /t͡sʰiu⁴⁴/
Taoyuan /t͡sʰiu²⁴/
Cantonese Guangzhou /t͡sʰɐu⁵³/
Nanning /t͡sʰɐu⁵⁵/
Hong Kong /t͡sʰɐu⁵⁵/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /t͡sʰiu⁵⁵/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /t͡sʰieu⁴⁴/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /t͡sʰiu⁵⁴/
Shantou (Min Nan) /t͡sʰiu³³/
Haikou (Min Nan) /siu²³/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (14)
Final () (136)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/t͡sʰɨu/
Pan
Wuyun
/t͡sʰiu/
Shao
Rongfen
/t͡sʰiəu/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/t͡sʰuw/
Li
Rong
/t͡sʰiu/
Wang
Li
/t͡sʰĭəu/
Bernard
Karlgren
/t͡sʰi̯ə̯u/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
qiū
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
cau1
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
qiū
Middle
Chinese
‹ tshjuw ›
Old
Chinese
/*tsʰiw/
English autumn; crop

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 10537
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
2
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*sʰɯw/

Definitions[edit]

  1. autumn; fall
  2. year
  3. period; time
  4. A surname​.
See also[edit]
Seasons in Chinese · 四季 (sìjì, “four seasons”) (layout · text)
(chūn, “spring”) (xià, “summer”) (qiū, “fall; autumn”) (dōng, “winter”)

Compounds[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

For pronunciation and definitions of – see .
(This character, , is the simplified form of .)
Notes:

Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. autumn

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia ja
English Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia
Kanji in this term
あき
Grade: 2
kun’yomi

⟨aki1 → */akʲi//aki/

From Old Japanese.

Likely cognate with 明き (aki, bright), (aka, red), 飽きる (akiru, to become full up, possibly in reference to the harvest), 空く (aku, to become empty), 開く (aku, to open up). However, the exact relationship of these terms remains unclear.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

(あき) (aki

  1. autumn, fall (season)

Synonyms[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

See also[edit]

Seasons in Japanese · ()() (shiki, four seasons) (layout · text)
(はる) (haru, spring),
春季(しゅんき) (shunki, spring).
春期(しゅんき) (shunki, spring period)
(なつ) (natsu, summer),
夏季(かき) (kaki, summer),
夏期(かき) (kaki, summer period)
(あき) (aki, fall; autumn),
秋季(しゅうき) (shūki, fall; autumn),
秋期(しゅうき) (shūki, fall period)
(ふゆ) (fuyu, winter),
冬季(とうき) (tōki, winter),
冬期(とうき) (tōki, winter period)

References[edit]

  1. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  2. ^ 2002, 京阪系アクセント辞典 (A Dictionary of Tone on Words of the Keihan-type Dialects) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Bensei, →ISBN

Korean[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Middle Chinese (MC t͡sʰɨu).

Historical Readings
Dongguk Jeongun Reading
Dongguk Jeongun, 1448 츄ᇢ (Yale: chyùw)
Middle Korean
Text Eumhun
Gloss (hun) Reading
Hunmong Jahoe, 1527[1] ᄀᆞᅀᆞᆯ (Yale: kòzòl) (Yale: chyù)

Pronunciation[edit]

Hanja[edit]

Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

Wikisource

(eumhun 가을 (ga'eul chu))

  1. Hanja form? of (autumn; fall). [affix]

Compounds[edit]

References[edit]

  • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [2]

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

: Hán Nôm readings: thu

  1. Hán tự form of thu (fall, autumn).

Derived terms[edit]