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U+978B, 鞋
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-978B

[U+978A]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+978C]
See also:

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
鞋-bw.png

Han character[edit]

(radical 177 +6, 15 strokes, cangjie input 廿十土土 (TJGG), four-corner 44514, composition)

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 1387, character 22
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 42813
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1902, character 3
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 7, page 4333, character 2
  • Unihan data for U+978B

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.

Glyph origin[edit]

Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*kreː, *kreː
*ɡreː, *ɡreː, *ɡreː
*ŋreː, *ŋreːʔ
*kreː
*ɡreː, *kʷeː, *kʰʷeː
*ŋreː, *ŋre
*ŋreː, *ŋre
*ŋreː
*ŋreː
*ŋreː
*ŋreːs
*qreː
*qreː, *qʷraː, *kʷeː
*qreː, *qʷraː
*ɡeː, *kʷeː
*qeːns
*ɡʷraːʔ
*ɡʷraːʔ, *ɡʷreːs, *ɡʷeː
*ɡʷraːʔ, *qʰʷe
*qʷraː, *qʷreː
*qʷraː
*kʷreːs
*kʷreːs
*kʷreːs
詿 *kʷreːs, *ɡʷreːs
*kʷreːs, *ɡʷreːs, *kʷeːs
*kʰʷreː, *ɡʷreːs
*ɢʷreː, *qʷreː
*kʷeː
*kʷeː
*kʷeː
*kʷeː
*kʷeː
*kʷeː, *ɡʷeː
*kʷeː, *kʰʷeː
*kʷeːs
*kʷeːs
*kʰʷeː
*kʰʷeː
*kʰʷeː
*kʰʷeː
*qʰʷeː
*ɡʷeː
*ɡʷeː, *sqʰʷe, *qʰʷe, *qʰʷi
*qʷeː, *kʰʷeːŋʔ
*kʰʷeʔ
*qʷes
*qʰʷreɡ

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *ɡreː, *ɡreː, *ɡreː): semantic (leather) + phonetic (OC *kʷeː) – leather shoes.

Pronunciation[edit]


Note:
  • ê/ôe - vernacular;
  • hâi - literary.

  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /ɕiɛ³⁵/
Harbin /ɕiɛ²⁴/
Tianjin /ɕie⁴⁵/
Jinan /ɕiɛ⁴²/
Qingdao /ɕiɛ⁴²/
Zhengzhou /ɕiɛ⁴²/
Xi'an /xai²⁴/
Xining /xɛ²⁴/
Yinchuan /xɛ⁵³/
/ɕie⁵³/
Lanzhou /xɛ⁵³/
Ürümqi /xai⁵¹/
Wuhan /xai²¹³/
Chengdu /xai³¹/
Guiyang /xai²¹/
Kunming /xæ³¹/
Nanjing /ɕiɛ²⁴/
Hefei /ɕie̞⁵⁵/
Jin Taiyuan /xai¹¹/
/ɕie¹¹/
Pingyao /xæ¹³/
Hohhot /ɕie³¹/ 皮~
/xɛ³¹/ 靸~
Wu Shanghai /ɦa²³/
Suzhou /ɦɑ¹³/
Hangzhou /ɦie̞²¹³/
Wenzhou /ɦa³¹/
Hui Shexian /xa⁴⁴/
Tunxi /xa⁴⁴/
Xiang Changsha /xai¹³/
Xiangtan /ɦai¹²/
Gan Nanchang /hai²⁴/
Hakka Meixian /hai¹¹/
Taoyuan /hɑi¹¹/
Cantonese Guangzhou /hai²¹/
Nanning /hai²¹/
Hong Kong /hai²¹/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /hai³⁵/
/ue³⁵/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /ɛ⁵³/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /ai²¹/
Shantou (Min Nan) /oi⁵⁵/
Haikou (Min Nan) /ɔi³¹/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2
Initial () (33) (33)
Final () (31) (33)
Tone (調) Level (Ø) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open Open
Division () II II
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ɦˠɛ/ /ɦˠɛi/
Pan
Wuyun
/ɦᵚæ/ /ɦᵚæi/
Shao
Rongfen
/ɣæi/ /ɣɐi/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ɦaɨj/ /ɦəɨj/
Li
Rong
/ɣɛ/ /ɣɛi/
Wang
Li
/ɣai/ /ɣɐi/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ɣai/ /ɣăi/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
xiá xié
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
xié
Middle
Chinese
‹  ›
Old
Chinese
/*[ɡ]ˤre/ (no pre-Qín exx.)
English shoe

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/3 2/3 3/3
No. 4528 4534 4541
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0 0 0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*ɡreː/ /*ɡreː/ /*ɡreː/
Notes

Definitions[edit]

  1. shoe; footwear   (Classifier: ; ; )
    /   ―  yī shuāng xié  ―  a pair of shoes
    穿我們出去晚飯 [MSC, trad.]
    穿我们出去晚饭 [MSC, simp.]
    Chuān shàng nǐ de xié, wǒmen chūqù chī wǎnfàn. [Pinyin]
    Put on your shoes. Let's go out for dinner.
    這裡必須 [MSC, trad.]
    这里必须 [MSC, simp.]
    Zài zhèlǐ wǒ bìxū tuō xié ma? [Pinyin]
    Do I have to take off my shoes here?

Compounds[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(uncommon “Hyōgai” kanji)

  1. shoes; shoe; footwear

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Kanji in this term
くつ
Hyōgaiji
kun'yomi

Unclear. Some Japanese sources suggest a borrowing from or cognate with Korean 구두 (gudu, “shoes”), but then some Korean sources suggest that the Korean term was borrowed from Japanese (kutsu, “shoes”).

This reading is more commonly spelled as . See that entry for more detail.

Pronunciation[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana くつ, romaji kutsu)

  1. Alternative spelling of : shoe, shoes, footwear

Etymology 2[edit]

Kanji in this term
わらじ
Hyōgaiji
kun'yomi

/waragut͡su//warand͡zu//warand͡ʑi//warad͡ʑi/

Originally a compound of (wara, straw) +‎ (kutsu, shoes, boots, footwear).[3][1]

This reading is more commonly spelled as 草鞋. See that entry for more detail.

Pronunciation[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana わらじ, romaji waraji, historical hiragana わらぢ)

  1. Alternative spelling of 草鞋: straw sandals

References[edit]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9
  2. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, ISBN 978-4-14-011112-3
  3. ^ 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

‎(hye) (hangeul , McCune-Reischauer hye, Yale hyey)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(hài, giày)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.