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U+978B, 鞋
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-978B

[U+978A]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+978C]
See also:

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
15 strokes

Han character[edit]

(radical 177 +6, 15 strokes, cangjie input 廿十土土 (TJGG), four-corner 44514, composition)

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 1387, character 22
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 42813
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1902, character 3
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 7, page 4333, character 2
  • Unihan data for U+978B

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.

Glyph origin[edit]

Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*kreː, *kreː
*ɡreː, *ɡreː, *ɡreː
*ŋreː, *ŋreːʔ
*kreː
*ɡreː, *kʷeː, *kʰʷeː
*ŋreː, *ŋre
*ŋreː, *ŋre
*ŋreː
*ŋreː
*ŋreː
*ŋreːs
*qreː
*qreː, *qʷraː, *kʷeː
*qreː, *qʷraː
*ɡeː, *kʷeː
*qeːns
*ɡʷraːʔ
*ɡʷraːʔ, *ɡʷreːs, *ɡʷeː
*ɡʷraːʔ, *qʰʷe
*qʷraː, *qʷreː
*qʷraː
*kʷreːs
*kʷreːs
*kʷreːs
詿 *kʷreːs, *ɡʷreːs
*kʷreːs, *ɡʷreːs, *kʷeːs
*kʰʷreː, *ɡʷreːs
*ɢʷreː, *qʷreː
*kʷeː
*kʷeː
*kʷeː
*kʷeː
*kʷeː
*kʷeː, *ɡʷeː
*kʷeː, *kʰʷeː
*kʷeːs
*kʷeːs
*kʰʷeː
*kʰʷeː
*kʰʷeː
*kʰʷeː
*qʰʷeː
*ɡʷeː
*ɡʷeː, *sqʰʷe, *qʰʷe, *qʰʷi
*qʷeː, *kʰʷeːŋʔ
*kʰʷeʔ
*qʷes
*qʰʷreɡ

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *ɡreː, *ɡreː, *ɡreː): semantic  (leather) + phonetic  (OC *kʷeː) – leather shoes.

Etymology 1[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]


Note:
  • ê/ôe/êre - vernacular;
  • hâi - literary.

  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /ɕiɛ³⁵/
Harbin /ɕiɛ²⁴/
Tianjin /ɕie⁴⁵/
Jinan /ɕiɛ⁴²/
Qingdao /ɕiɛ⁴²/
Zhengzhou /ɕiɛ⁴²/
Xi'an /xai²⁴/
Xining /xɛ²⁴/
Yinchuan /xɛ⁵³/
/ɕie⁵³/
Lanzhou /xɛ⁵³/
Ürümqi /xai⁵¹/
Wuhan /xai²¹³/
Chengdu /xai³¹/
Guiyang /xai²¹/
Kunming /xæ³¹/
Nanjing /ɕiɛ²⁴/
Hefei /ɕie̞⁵⁵/
Jin Taiyuan /xai¹¹/
/ɕie¹¹/
Pingyao /xæ¹³/
Hohhot /ɕie³¹/ 皮~
/xɛ³¹/ 靸~
Wu Shanghai /ɦa²³/
Suzhou /ɦɑ¹³/
Hangzhou /ɦie̞²¹³/
Wenzhou /ɦa³¹/
Hui Shexian /xa⁴⁴/
Tunxi /xa⁴⁴/
Xiang Changsha /xai¹³/
Xiangtan /ɦai¹²/
Gan Nanchang /hai²⁴/
Hakka Meixian /hai¹¹/
Taoyuan /hɑi¹¹/
Cantonese Guangzhou /hai²¹/
Nanning /hai²¹/
Hong Kong /hai²¹/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /hai³⁵/
/ue³⁵/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /ɛ⁵³/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /ai²¹/
Shantou (Min Nan) /oi⁵⁵/
Haikou (Min Nan) /ɔi³¹/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2
Initial () (33) (33)
Final () (31) (33)
Tone (調) Level (Ø) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open Open
Division () II II
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ɦˠɛ/ /ɦˠɛi/
Pan
Wuyun
/ɦᵚæ/ /ɦᵚæi/
Shao
Rongfen
/ɣæi/ /ɣɐi/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ɦaɨj/ /ɦəɨj/
Li
Rong
/ɣɛ/ /ɣɛi/
Wang
Li
/ɣai/ /ɣɐi/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ɣai/ /ɣăi/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
xiá xié
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
xié
Middle
Chinese
‹  ›
Old
Chinese
/*[ɡ]ˤre/ (no pre-Qín exx.)
English shoe

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/3 2/3 3/3
No. 4528 4534 4541
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0 0 0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*ɡreː/ /*ɡreː/ /*ɡreː/
Notes

Definitions[edit]

  1. shoe; footwear (Classifier: ; ; )
    /   ―  yī shuāng xié  ―  a pair of shoes
    穿我們出去晚飯 [MSC, trad.]
    穿我们出去晚饭 [MSC, simp.]
    Chuān shàng nǐ de xié, wǒmen chūqù chī wǎnfàn. [Pinyin]
    Put on your shoes. Let's go out for dinner.
    這裡必須 [MSC, trad.]
    这里必须 [MSC, simp.]
    Zài zhèlǐ wǒ bìxū tuō xié ma? [Pinyin]
    Do I have to take off my shoes here?

Compounds[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

For pronunciation and definitions of – see .
(This character, , is a variant form of .)

Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(uncommon “Hyōgai” kanji)

  1. shoes; shoe; footwear

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Kanji in this term
くつ
Hyōgaiji
kun’yomi

Noun[edit]

(hiragana くつ, rōmaji kutsu)

  1. Alternative spelling of (piece of footwear)

Etymology 2[edit]

Kanji in this term
わらじ
Hyōgaiji
kun’yomi

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

(hiragana わらじ, rōmaji waraji, historical hiragana わらぢ)

  1. Rare spelling of 草鞋 (straw sandal).

References[edit]

  1. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

(hye) (hangeul , McCune-Reischauer hye, Yale hyey)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(hài, giày)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.