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U+86D9, 蛙
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-86D9

[U+86D8]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+86DA]

Translingual[edit]

Han character[edit]

(radical 142, +6, 12 strokes, cangjie input 中戈土土 (LIGG), four-corner 54114, composition)

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 1081, character 25
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 32997
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1549, character 20
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 4, page 2847, character 3
  • Unihan data for U+86D9

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.
alternative forms

Glyph origin[edit]

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *qʷraː, *qʷreː): semantic  (insect; creature) + phonetic  (OC *kʷeː).

Etymology 1[edit]

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium. Particularly: “Onomatopoeic?”)

Pronunciation[edit]



  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /ua⁵⁵/
Harbin /ua²⁴/
Tianjin /vɑ²¹/
Jinan /va⁴²/
Qingdao /va²¹³/
Zhengzhou /ua²⁴/
Xi'an /ua²¹/
Xining /ua⁴⁴/
Yinchuan /va⁴⁴/
Lanzhou /va⁵³/
Ürümqi /va⁴⁴/
Wuhan /ua⁵⁵/
Chengdu /ua⁵⁵/
Guiyang /ua⁵⁵/
Kunming /ua̠⁴⁴/
Nanjing /uɑ³¹/
Hefei /ua²¹/
Jin Taiyuan /va¹¹/
Pingyao /uɑ¹³/
Hohhot /va³¹/
Wu Shanghai /o⁵³/
Suzhou /o⁵⁵/
Hangzhou /ʔuɑ³³/
Wenzhou /o³³/
Hui Shexian /ua³¹/
Tunxi /ua¹¹/
Xiang Changsha /ua³³/
Xiangtan /uɒ³³/
Gan Nanchang /uɑ⁴²/
Hakka Meixian /va⁴⁴/
Taoyuan
Cantonese Guangzhou /wa⁵⁵/
Nanning /wa⁵⁵/
Hong Kong /wa⁵⁵/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /ua⁵⁵/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /ua⁴⁴/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /ua⁵⁴/
Shantou (Min Nan) /ua³³/
Haikou (Min Nan) /ua²³/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2
Initial () (34) (34)
Final () (32) (99)
Tone (調) Level (Ø) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Closed Closed
Division () II II
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ʔˠuɛ/ /ʔˠua/
Pan
Wuyun
/ʔʷᵚæ/ /ʔʷᵚa/
Shao
Rongfen
/ʔuæi/ /ʔua/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ʔwaɨj/ /ʔwaɨ/
Li
Rong
/ʔuɛ/ /ʔua/
Wang
Li
/wai/ /wa/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ʔwai/ /ʔwa/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/4 2/4 3/4 4/4
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle
Chinese
‹ 'wae › ‹ 'wea › ‹ hwae › ‹ hwea ›
Old
Chinese
/*qʷˁre/ (MC -ae for -ea) /*qʷˁre/ /*m-qʷˁre/ (MC -ae for -ea) /*m-qʷˁre/
English frog frog frog frog

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2
No. 4552 4567
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0 0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*qʷraː/ /*qʷreː/
Notes

Definitions[edit]

  1. frog
Synonyms[edit]
Compounds[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]


Definitions[edit]

  1. Only used in 蝭蛙.

Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(uncommon “Hyōgai” kanji)

Readings[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia ja
English Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia
(kaeru, kawazu, kairu): a frog.
Kanji in this term
かえる
Hyōgaiji
kun’yomi

⟨kaperu⟩/kaperu//kaferu//kaweru//kajeru//kaeru/

From Old Japanese.

Only found once in the Man'yōshū, completed some time after 759 CE, where it is used phonetically to spell the name of the maple tree.[1] Generally regarded as the informal or everyday term for frog, in contrast to the formal or poetic term kawazu (see below).[2]

The ultimate derivation is unclear, with numerous theories. Some of the leading ideas include:

  • Cognate with 帰る (kaeru, to return (to a point of origin)), from the way that some species of frogs return to their birthplace to spawn
  • Cognate with 孵る (kaeru, to hatch (from an egg)), in reference to tadpoles
  • Derived from onomatopoeia, where kape originally referred to the frog's call, suffixed uncertain element -ru

The phonetic development went through a clear stage where the middle mora was pronounced /je/, as illustrated in the 1603 Nippo Jisho entry, spelled cayeru.[3] This was likely a result of the Muromachi period sound shift, where /we/ shifted to /je/, followed later by /je/ merging into /e/ to produce modern /kaeru/.

Now the most common term for frog.

Pronunciation[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Noun[edit]

(かえる) (kaeru (historical kana かへる)

  1. a frog (amphibious animal)
Usage notes[edit]

As with many terms that name organisms, this term is often spelled in katakana, especially in biological contexts, as カエル.

Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Kanji in this term
かわず
Hyōgaiji
kun’yomi

⟨kapadu⟩ → */kapadu//kafad͡zu//kawad͡zu//kawazu/

The more formal or poetic counterpart to kaeru (see above).[2] Found in the Man'yōshū, completed some time after 759 CE.[7]

The ultimate derivation is unclear, but the initial kawa portion (ancient kapa) is very likely , (kawa, ancient kapa, river).

The phonetic development of the term had already progressed to kawadzu by 1603, as seen in the Nippo Jisho entry, spelled cauazzu.[8]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

(かわず) (kawazu (historical kana かはづ)

  1. (poetic) a frog (amphibious animal)
  2. (Noh theater) a specific mask used in certain Noh plays, depicting a drowned person
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

Kanji in this term
かいる
Hyōgaiji
kun’yomi

⟨kaperu⟩/kaperu//kaferu//kaweru//kajeru//kairu/

Sound shift. Existed alongside earlier kayeru in the late 1500s, early 1600s, as seen in the 1603 Nippo Jisho entry, spelled cairu.[9]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

(かいる) (kairu

  1. (archaic, possibly obsolete) a frog (amphibious animal)

Etymology 4[edit]

Kanji in this term

Hyōgaiji
kan’yōon

Affix[edit]

() (a

  1. frog (amphibious animal)

Derived terms[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 8, poem 1623), text here
  2. 2.0 2.1 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
  3. ^ 1603, 日葡辞書: パリ本 / Vocabulario da Lingoa Iapam (Nippo Jisho: Paris edition / Vocabulary of the Language of Japan) (in Japanese and Portuguese), 1976 reprint, Tōkyō: Bensei Publishing, text here towards the bottom of the right-hand column
  4. 4.0 4.1 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  5. 5.0 5.1 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN
  6. 6.0 6.1 1997, 新明解国語辞典 (Shin Meikai Kokugo Jiten), Fifth Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  7. ^ c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 3, poem 356), text here
  8. ^ 1603, 日葡辞書: パリ本 / Vocabulario da Lingoa Iapam (Nippo Jisho: Paris edition / Vocabulary of the Language of Japan) (in Japanese and Portuguese), 1976 reprint, Tōkyō: Bensei Publishing, text here, fifth entry from the bottom of the right-hand column
  9. ^ 1603, 日葡辞書: パリ本 / Vocabulario da Lingoa Iapam (Nippo Jisho: Paris edition / Vocabulary of the Language of Japan) (in Japanese and Portuguese), 1976 reprint, Tōkyō: Bensei Publishing, text here as the fourth entry in the right-hand column, defined in Portuguese as raã, typographic variant of rãa, earlier form of modern (frog)

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

(wa, wae) (hangeul , , revised wa, wae, McCune–Reischauer wa, wae, Yale wa, way)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(oa)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.