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U+86D9, 蛙
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-86D9

[U+86D8]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+86DA]

Translingual[edit]

Han character[edit]

(radical 142, +6, 12 strokes, cangjie input 中戈土土 (LIGG), four-corner 54114, composition)

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 1081, character 25
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 32997
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1549, character 20
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 4, page 2847, character 3
  • Unihan data for U+86D9

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.
variant forms

Glyph origin[edit]

Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*kreː, *kreː
*ɡreː, *ɡreː, *ɡreː
*ŋreː, *ŋreːʔ
*kreː
*ɡreː, *kʷeː, *kʰʷeː
*ŋreː, *ŋre
*ŋreː, *ŋre
*ŋreː
*ŋreː
*ŋreː
*ŋreːs
*qreː
*qreː, *qʷraː, *kʷeː
*qreː, *qʷraː
*ɡeː, *kʷeː
*qeːns
*ɡʷraːʔ
*ɡʷraːʔ, *ɡʷreːs, *ɡʷeː
*ɡʷraːʔ, *qʰʷe
*qʷraː, *qʷreː
*qʷraː
*kʷreːs
*kʷreːs
*kʷreːs
詿 *kʷreːs, *ɡʷreːs
*kʷreːs, *ɡʷreːs, *kʷeːs
*kʰʷreː, *ɡʷreːs
*ɢʷreː, *qʷreː
*kʷeː
*kʷeː
*kʷeː
*kʷeː
*kʷeː
*kʷeː, *ɡʷeː
*kʷeː, *kʰʷeː
*kʷeːs
*kʷeːs
*kʰʷeː
*kʰʷeː
*kʰʷeː
*kʰʷeː
*qʰʷeː
*ɡʷeː
*ɡʷeː, *sqʰʷe, *qʰʷe, *qʰʷi
*qʷeː, *kʰʷeːŋʔ
*kʰʷeʔ
*qʷes
*qʰʷreɡ

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *qʷraː, *qʷreː): semantic  (insect; creature) + phonetic  (OC *kʷeː).

Etymology 1[edit]

EB1911 - Volume 01 - Page 001 - 1.svg This entry lacks etymological information. If you are familiar with the origin of this term, please add it to the page per etymology instructions. You can also discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.
Particularly: “Onomatopoeic?”

Pronunciation[edit]



  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /ua⁵⁵/
Harbin /ua²⁴/
Tianjin /vɑ²¹/
Jinan /va⁴²/
Qingdao /va²¹³/
Zhengzhou /ua²⁴/
Xi'an /ua²¹/
Xining /ua⁴⁴/
Yinchuan /va⁴⁴/
Lanzhou /va⁵³/
Ürümqi /va⁴⁴/
Wuhan /ua⁵⁵/
Chengdu /ua⁵⁵/
Guiyang /ua⁵⁵/
Kunming /ua̠⁴⁴/
Nanjing /uɑ³¹/
Hefei /ua²¹/
Jin Taiyuan /va¹¹/
Pingyao /uɑ¹³/
Hohhot /va³¹/
Wu Shanghai /o⁵³/
Suzhou /o⁵⁵/
Hangzhou /ʔuɑ³³/
Wenzhou /o³³/
Hui Shexian /ua³¹/
Tunxi /ua¹¹/
Xiang Changsha /ua³³/
Xiangtan /uɒ³³/
Gan Nanchang /uɑ⁴²/
Hakka Meixian /va⁴⁴/
Taoyuan
Cantonese Guangzhou /wa⁵⁵/
Nanning /wa⁵⁵/
Hong Kong /wa⁵⁵/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /ua⁵⁵/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /ua⁴⁴/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /ua⁵⁴/
Shantou (Min Nan) /ua³³/
Haikou (Min Nan) /ua²³/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2
Initial () (34) (34)
Final () (32) (99)
Tone (調) Level (Ø) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Closed Closed
Division () II II
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ʔˠuɛ/ /ʔˠua/
Pan
Wuyun
/ʔʷᵚæ/ /ʔʷᵚa/
Shao
Rongfen
/ʔuæi/ /ʔua/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ʔwaɨj/ /ʔwaɨ/
Li
Rong
/ʔuɛ/ /ʔua/
Wang
Li
/wai/ /wa/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ʔwai/ /ʔwa/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/4 2/4 3/4 4/4
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle
Chinese
‹ 'wae › ‹ 'wea › ‹ hwae › ‹ hwea ›
Old
Chinese
/*qʷˁre/ (MC -ae for -ea) /*qʷˁre/ /*m-qʷˁre/ (MC -ae for -ea) /*m-qʷˁre/
English frog frog frog frog

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2
No. 4552 4567
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0 0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*qʷraː/ /*qʷreː/
Notes

Definitions[edit]

  1. frog
Synonyms[edit]
Dialectal synonyms of 青蛙 (“frog”) [map]
Variety Location Words
Classical Chinese
Formal (Written Standard Chinese) 青蛙
Taxonomic name
Mandarin Beijing 蛤蟆田雞
Taiwan 青蛙田雞
Harbin 蛤蟆青乖子
Shenyang 蛤蟆青乖子
Jinan 蛤蟆田雞
Muping 蚧巴子張拉崴子張崴子
Luoyang 蛤蟆
Jiedian 水雞子
Xi'an 蛤蟆田雞
Xining 青蛙
Xuzhou 水雞兒
Yinchuan 田畝雞
Lanzhou 金蛤蟆長腿癩蛤蟆
Ürümqi 青蛙
Wuhan 蛤蟆綠蛤蟆田雞
Chengdu 蜞螞兒青蜞螞兒青蛙田雞
Guiyang 青蛙田雞
Liuzhou 蟆𧊅
Kunming 青蛙田雞
Yangzhou 田雞子田雞水雞子
Nanjing 田雞水雞蛤蟆青蛙
Hefei 蛤蟆田雞
Nantong 田雞
Cantonese Guangzhou 蛤乸蛤𧊅田雞
Hong Kong 蛤乸蛤𧊅田雞青蛙
Foshan 田雞
Dongguan 田雞
Hong Kong (Weitou) 蛤𧊅蛤乸
Taishan 田雞
Yangjiang 田雞
Xinyi 蛤乸蛤𧊅
Nanning 蛤乸
Kuala Lumpur 田雞青蛙
Gan Nanchang 蛤蟆田雞老蛤
Lichuan 蛤蟆
Pingxiang 鬼蛤蟆
Hakka Meixian 𧊅仔田雞蛤蟆
Changting 蛤蟆
Yudu 𧊅
Miaoli (N. Sixian) 𧊅仔
Liudui (S. Sixian) 𧊅仔
Hsinchu (Hailu) 𧊅仔
Dongshi (Dabu) 𧊅
Zhuolan (Raoping) 𧊅仔
Yunlin (Zhao'an) 𧊅子
Hong Kong 蛤蟆
Sabah 蛤蟆𧊅哩蛤𧊅
Senai 𧊅仔
Singkawang 𧊅
Huizhou Jixi 水雞田雞蛤蟆
Jin Taiyuan 蛤蟆
Xinzhou 蛤蟆
Hohhot 蛤蟆
Min Bei Jian'ou 田狗水雞
Min Dong Fuzhou 青蛤黃䱝水雞
Fuqing 青蛤黃䱝水雞
Matsu 黃䱝
Min Nan Xiamen 田蛤仔水雞
Quanzhou 埯魅坸仔水雞
Zhangzhou 田蛤仔水雞
Taipei 大肚仔魚水雞田蛤仔杜蝛仔
Kaohsiung 水雞四跤仔田蛤仔
Tainan 水雞四跤魚田蛤仔田僑
Taichung 水雞
Hsinchu 水雞
Lukang 水雞田蛤仔
Sanxia 水雞田蛤仔肚蛙
Yilan 水雞蛤仔
Kinmen 水雞
Magong 水雞
Penang 水雞
Chaozhou 蛤虯水雞
Haifeng 蛤蛄蛤虯
Johor Bahru 蛤虯
Haikou 田雞螻蛤
Leizhou 田雞
Puxian Min Putian 洋乜水雞
Xianyou 洋乜水雞
Pinghua Nanning 田雞
Guilin 蛤蟆
Wu Shanghai 田雞青蛙
Suzhou 田雞青蛙
Hangzhou 田雞
Wenzhou 蛤蟆蛤蟆牯田雞
Chongming 田雞
Danyang 田雞青蛙
Jinhua 田雞蟥蟆
Tangxi 田雞蛤蟆
Ningbo 田雞水雞
Xiang Changsha 蛤蟆蛤蟆子蟆𧊅水雞
Shuangfeng 蟆𧊅子
Loudi 蟆𧊅蟆𧊅子
Quanzhou 蟆𧊅
Compounds[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]


Definitions[edit]

  1. Only used in 蝭蛙.

Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(uncommon “Hyōgai” kanji)

  1. frog (amphibious animal)
Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia ja
English Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia
(kaeru, kawazu, kairu): a frog.
Kanji in this term
かえる
Hyōgaiji
kun’yomi

⟨kaperu⟩/kaperu//kaferu//kaweru//kajeru//kaeru/

From Old Japanese.

Only found once in the Man'yōshū, completed some time after 759 CE, where it is used phonetically to spell the name of the maple tree.[1] Generally regarded as the informal or everyday term for frog, in contrast to the formal or poetic term kawazu (see below).[2]

The ultimate derivation is unclear, with numerous theories. Some of the leading ideas include:

  • Cognate with 帰る (kaeru, to return (to a point of origin)), from the way that some species of frogs return to their birthplace to spawn
  • Cognate with 孵る (kaeru, to hatch (from an egg)), in reference to tadpoles
  • Derived from onomatopoeia, where kape originally referred to the frog's call, suffixed uncertain element -ru

The phonetic development went through a clear stage where the middle mora was pronounced /je/, as illustrated in the 1603 Nippo Jisho entry, spelled cayeru.[3] This was likely a result of the Muromachi period sound shift, where /we/ shifted to /je/, followed later by /je/ merging into /e/ to produce modern /kaeru/.

Now the most common term for frog.

Pronunciation[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Noun[edit]

(hiragana かえる, katakana カエル, rōmaji kaeru, historical hiragana かへる)

  1. a frog (amphibious animal)
Usage notes[edit]

As with many terms that name organisms, this term is often spelled in katakana, especially in biological contexts, as カエル.

Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Kanji in this term
かわず
Hyōgaiji
kun’yomi

⟨kapadu⟩ → */kapadu//kafad͡zu//kawad͡zu//kawazu/

The more formal or poetic counterpart to kaeru (see above).[2] Found in the Man'yōshū, completed some time after 759 CE.[7]

The ultimate derivation is unclear, but the initial kawa portion (ancient kapa) is very likely , (kawa, ancient kapa, river).

The phonetic development of the term had already progressed to kawadzu by 1603, as seen in the Nippo Jisho entry, spelled cauazzu.[8]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

(hiragana かわず, rōmaji kawazu, historical hiragana かはづ)

  1. (poetic) a frog (amphibious animal)
  2. (Noh theater) a specific mask used in certain Noh plays, depicting a drowned person
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

Kanji in this term
かいる
Hyōgaiji
kun’yomi

⟨kaperu⟩/kaperu//kaferu//kaweru//kajeru//kairu/

Sound shift. Existed alongside earlier kayeru in the late 1500s, early 1600s, as seen in the 1603 Nippo Jisho entry, spelled cairu.[9]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

(hiragana かいる, rōmaji kairu)

  1. (archaic, possibly obsolete) a frog (amphibious animal)

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 8, poem 1623), text here
  2. 2.0 2.1 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
  3. ^ 1603, 日葡辞書: パリ本 / Vocabulario da Lingoa Iapam (Nippo Jisho: Paris edition / Vocabulary of the Language of Japan) (in Japanese and Portuguese), 1976 reprint, Tōkyō: Bensei Publishing, text here towards the bottom of the right-hand column
  4. 4.0 4.1 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  5. 5.0 5.1 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN
  6. 6.0 6.1 1997, 新明解国語辞典 (Shin Meikai Kokugo Jiten), Fifth Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  7. ^ c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 3, poem 356), text here
  8. ^ 1603, 日葡辞書: パリ本 / Vocabulario da Lingoa Iapam (Nippo Jisho: Paris edition / Vocabulary of the Language of Japan) (in Japanese and Portuguese), 1976 reprint, Tōkyō: Bensei Publishing, text here, fifth entry from the bottom of the right-hand column
  9. ^ 1603, 日葡辞書: パリ本 / Vocabulario da Lingoa Iapam (Nippo Jisho: Paris edition / Vocabulary of the Language of Japan) (in Japanese and Portuguese), 1976 reprint, Tōkyō: Bensei Publishing, text here as the fourth entry in the right-hand column, defined in Portuguese as raã, typographic variant of rãa, earlier form of modern (frog)

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

(wa, wae) (hangeul , , revised wa, wae, McCune–Reischauer wa, wae, Yale wa, way)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(oa)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.