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See also:
U+66B4, 暴
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-66B4

[U+66B3]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+66B5]
U+FA06, 暴
CJK COMPATIBILITY IDEOGRAPH-FA06

[U+FA05]
CJK Compatibility Ideographs
[U+FA07]

Translingual[edit]

Han character[edit]

(radical 72, +11, 15 strokes, cangjie input 日廿金水 (ATCE), four-corner 60132, composition)

Derived characters[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • KangXi: page 499, character 29
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 14137
  • Dae Jaweon: page 868, character 35
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 2, page 1532, character 15
  • Unihan data for U+66B4

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.
alternative forms

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shang Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
暴-oracle.svg 暴-seal.svg 暴-bigseal.svg

Ideogrammic compound (會意) – originally (in oracle script) the antler of a buck (at bottom), indicating a savage attack. Subsequently significantly simplified and abstracted: in seal script analyzed as + + + , while in current form rather + + (similar to unrelated ); compare bottom component to bottom right of . In the Liushutong, it is analyzed as + 鹿 + , a salivating savage deer.

Etymology 1[edit]

Pronunciation 1[edit]



Rime
Character
Reading # 1/2
Initial () (3)
Final () (89)
Tone (調) Departing (H)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () I
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/bɑuH/
Pan
Wuyun
/bɑuH/
Shao
Rongfen
/bɑuH/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/bawH/
Li
Rong
/bɑuH/
Wang
Li
/bɑuH/
Bernard
Karlgren
/bʱɑuH/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
bào
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
bou6
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/2
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
bào
Middle
Chinese
‹ bawH ›
Old
Chinese
/*[b]ˁawk-s/
English violent

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/2
No. 330
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
3
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*boːwɢs/
Definitions[edit]

  1. sudden
  2. violent; cruel; brutal; tyrannical
  3. to injure
  4. (dated) to abuse; to oppress; to treat cruelly
Compounds[edit]
Descendants[edit]
Sino-Xenic ():
  • Japanese: (ぼう) ()
  • Korean: (, po)
  • Vietnamese: bạo ()

Pronunciation 2[edit]


Note: bou6 - in 暴露.
Note: pō - in 暴露.

Rime
Character
Reading # 2/2
Initial () (3)
Final () (3)
Tone (調) Checked (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () I
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/buk̚/
Pan
Wuyun
/buk̚/
Shao
Rongfen
/buk̚/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/bəwk̚/
Li
Rong
/buk̚/
Wang
Li
/buk̚/
Bernard
Karlgren
/bʱuk̚/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
buk6
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 2/2
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle
Chinese
‹ buwk ›
Old
Chinese
/*m-pˁawk/
English expose to sun

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 2/2
No. 343
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*boːɡ/
Definitions[edit]

  1. Alternative form of (, “to sun; to air in the sun”).
  2. to show; to expose
Compounds[edit]
Descendants[edit]
Sino-Xenic ():

Etymology 2[edit]

For pronunciation and definitions of – see (“to stick out; to bulge”).
(This character, , is a variant form of .)

References[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 5 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. violent; brutal; fierce

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Kanji in this term
ぼう
Grade: 5
on’yomi

From Middle Chinese (MC bɑuH, “violent”).

Pronunciation[edit]

Adjectival noun[edit]

(ぼう) (-na (adnominal (ぼう) (bō na), adverbial (ぼう) (bō ni))

  1. violent

Inflection[edit]

Noun[edit]

(ぼう) (

  1. violentness

References[edit]

  1. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  2. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN

Korean[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Middle Chinese (MC buk̚, “to expose to the sun”).

Historical readings

Pronunciation[edit]

Hanja[edit]

Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

Wikisource

(eumhun 나타날 (natanal pok))
(eumhun 드러날 (deureonal pok))

  1. (only in compounds) Hanja form? of (to show; to appear; to manifest).

Compounds[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

From a corrupted or unorthodox reading influenced by Middle Chinese (MC buk̚). The original reading is (po) based on Middle Chinese (MC bɑuH, “violent”).

Pronunciation[edit]

Hanja[edit]

(eumhun 사나울 (sanaul pok))

  1. (only in compounds) Hanja form? of (fierce; violent; brutal).

Compounds[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

From Middle Chinese (MC bɑuH, “violent”).

Historical readings

Pronunciation[edit]

  • (SK Standard/Seoul) IPA(key): [pʰo̞(ː)]
  • Phonetic hangeul: [(ː)]
    • Long vowel distinction only applies at the initial position. Most speakers no longer distinguish vowel length at any position.

Hanja[edit]

(eumhun 사나울 (sanaul po))

  1. Hanja form? of (fierce; violent; brutal).

Compounds[edit]

Etymology 4[edit]

From Middle Chinese .

Historical readings

Hanja[edit]

(eumhun 앙상할 (angsanghal bak))

  1. (literary Chinese) Hanja form? of (sparse; bare; thin; skinny).

Compounds[edit]

References[edit]

  • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [2]

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

: Hán Việt readings: bạo ((bạc)(báo)(thiết))[1][2][3][4][5], bộc ((bộ)(mộc)(thiết))[3][5]
: Nôm readings: bạo[1][2][3][4][6], bão[1][2][7], bộc[7][5], bậu[1], bẹo[3]

  1. Hán tự form of bạo (ferocious; cruel; violent).

Compounds[edit]

References[edit]