あばく

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Japanese[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Recorded since at least the early 1100s CE.[1] Likely cognate with adjective 荒ら (abara, with large gaps, wide open; wild, ruined), verb 暴れる (abareru, to be disorderly, to be wild, to be violent). Possibly also cognate with adjective 淡い (awai, faint, slight (as of a color or emotion); inconsistent, disjointed, flippant, frivolous (as of thought or behavior)).

Pronunciation[edit]

Verb[edit]

あばく (transitive, godan conjugation, rōmaji abaku)

  1. 暴く, 発く: to dig something up or out, to excavate or exhume something
    Synonym: 発掘する (hakkutsu suru)
  2. 暴く, 発く: to open something previously closed, to unrestrict something, to cut something loose or free
  3. 暴く, 発く: to disclose (a secret), to expose (a crime), to lay bare, to divulge
    • Tanaka Corpus
       (かれ)らの秘密 (ひみつ) (ぜん) () (あば)かれた
      Karera no himitsu ga zenbu abakareta.
      All their secrets have been revealed.
    Synonyms: ばらす (barasu) (more colloquial), 暴露する (bakuro suru) (more formal)
Conjugation[edit]
Related terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Unclear. May derive from the 四段活用 (yodan katsuyō, quadrigrade conjugation) form of abaku above, possibly as a sense development. Compare the English expressions cut loose, let looselet go in the sense of let oneself gobecome unkempt, to go to ruin.

Pronunciation[edit]

  • Pitch accent uncertain.

Verb[edit]

あばく (intransitive, shimo nidan conjugation, rōmaji abaku)

  1. 褫く: (obsolete) to become sparse, to grow wild, to fall apart, to fall into ruin
    Synonyms: 剥げる (hageru), 崩れ落ちる (kuzureochiru), 崩壊する (hōkai suru)
  2. 褫く: (obsolete) to be careless
    Synonym: 油断する (yudan suru)
Usage notes[edit]

Superseded in modern Japanese by the form あばける (abakeru), as the expected regular development of the earlier 下二段 (shimo nidan, lower bigrade) form. The sense also appears to have shifted somewhat, with a modern emphasis on to be careless; to mess around in Gunma prefecture, and to be wild, to be unrestrained in Yamanashi prefecture.

Usage might be restricted to regional dialects. This term does not appear in various dictionaries that focus on standard Japanese.[1][2][4][5]

Derived terms[edit]

Further reading[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

Unknown. Listed in the Nippo Jisho of 1603.[1][6]

May be related to the above forms of abaku from the general sense of unrestrainedness.

Pronunciation[edit]

  • Pitch accent uncertain.

Verb[edit]

あばく (intransitive, yodan conjugation, rōmaji abaku)

  1. (rare, apparently colloquial, possibly obsolete, mainly in the negative) to fit into a space
    Cono ninjuga cono zaxiqini abacanu.
    Esta gente não cabe neste Zaxiqi.[6]
    This many people won't fit in these seats.
    Synonym: 収まる (osamaru)
  2. (rare, apparently colloquial, possibly obsolete, mainly in the positive) to overflow, to overabound, to be too much
    Synonyms: 溢れる (afureru), 余る (amaru)

Usage notes[edit]

Seems to have fallen out of use; not included in many dictionaries.[2][4][5] No kanji spelling is used in available historical materials.[1]

The two senses provided by the Nippo Jisho have almost opposite meanings, which may suggest a mistake.

References[edit]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  3. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 1997, 新明解国語辞典 (Shin Meikai Kokugo Jiten), Fifth Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  5. 5.0 5.1 1995, 大辞泉 (Daijisen) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan, →ISBN
  6. 6.0 6.1 1603, 日葡辞書: パリ本 / Vocabulario da Lingoa Iapam (Nippo Jisho: Paris edition / Vocabulary of the Language of Japan) (in Japanese and Portuguese), 1976 reprint, Tōkyō: Bensei Publishing, text here, the third entry under the highlighted heading, listed as “Abaqi”