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See also: and
U+9EC3, 黃
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-9EC3

[U+9EC2]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+9EC4]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
黃-order.gif

Han character[edit]

(radical 201, +0, 12 strokes, cangjie input 廿一田金 (TMWC), four-corner 44806, composition ⿱⿱廿(GHJK) or ⿱⿱廿(T))

  1. Kangxi radical #201, .
  2. Shuowen Jiezi radical №486

Derived characters[edit]

Related characters[edit]

Further reading[edit]

Chinese Wikisource has digitized text of the Kangxi Dictionary entry for :

Wikisource


  • KangXi: page 1516, character 3
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 47926
  • Dae Jaweon: page 2046, character 11
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 7, page 4596, character 2
  • Unihan data for U+9EC3

Chinese[edit]

trad. /
simp.

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
黃-oracle.svg 黃-bronze.svg 黃-seal.svg 黃-bigseal.svg

According to Shuowen, it is both a phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *ɡʷaːŋ) and ideogrammic compound (會意): phonetic  (light) + semantic  (field) – the color of earth, with being the ancient form of (OC *kʷaːŋ, *kʷaːŋs, “light”). However, this interpretation is likely erroneous as 廿 at the top was formed as a result of corruption of in the bronze inscription.

Chi (2010) proposes that was originally a pictogram (象形) and the original character of (OC *qʷaːŋ, “a disabled person with a protruding chest or abdomen”). It has been phonetically borrowed for "yellow" since the era of the oracle bone script. He (1998) noted the possible ritual of burning disabled people with a protruding chest or abdomen to pray for rain as mentioned in Zuozhuan. The in the upper part of the bronze inscription of might be depicting the disabled person's face facing upwards.

Li (2012), on the other hand, proposes that was originally a pictogram (象形) and the original character of (OC *ɡʷaːŋ, “semicircular jade”) as the in the oracle bone script resembles a ring of jade, so the character would carry the meaning of "a man wearing a ring of jade on his chest". The meaning "yellow" is the result of rebus.

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *hwaŋ (shine; bright; yellow). Cognate with (OC *kʷaːŋ, *kʷaːŋs, “light; bright”), (OC *kʰʷaːŋs, “bright; well-lit”), Burmese ဝင်း (wang:, bright).

Pronunciation[edit]


Note: huángr - (1) “yolk”, (2) “the ovaries, roe and digestive tract of a female crab”.
Note: wong4-2 - “yolk”.
Note:
  • n̂g/ûiⁿ - vernacular (incl. surname);
  • hông - literary.
  • Wu
  • Note:
    • 3hhuaan - usual pronunciation;
    • 1huaan - variant pronunciation (e.g. 蛋黃).
  • Xiang
  • Note:
    • uan2 - vernacular;
    • fan2 - literary.

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /xuɑŋ³⁵/
    Harbin /xuaŋ²⁴/
    Tianjin /xuɑŋ⁴⁵/
    Jinan /xuaŋ⁴²/
    Qingdao /xuaŋ⁴²/
    Zhengzhou /xuaŋ⁴²/
    Xi'an /xuaŋ²⁴/
    Xining /xuɔ̃²⁴/
    Yinchuan /xuɑŋ⁵³/
    Lanzhou /xuɑ̃⁵³/
    Ürümqi /xuɑŋ⁵¹/
    Wuhan /xuaŋ²¹³/
    Chengdu /xuaŋ³¹/
    Guiyang /xuaŋ²¹/
    Kunming /xuã̠³¹/
    Nanjing /xuaŋ²⁴/
    Hefei /xuɑ̃⁵⁵/
    Jin Taiyuan /xuɒ̃¹¹/
    Pingyao /xuɑŋ¹³/
    /xuə¹³/ 發糕
    Hohhot /xuɑ̃³¹/
    Wu Shanghai /ɦuɑ̃²³/
    Suzhou /ɦuɑ̃¹³/
    Hangzhou /ɦuɑŋ²¹³/
    Wenzhou /ɦuɔ³¹/
    Hui Shexian /xo⁴⁴/
    /o⁴⁴/
    Tunxi /au⁴⁴/ ~色
    /xau⁴⁴/ 姓~
    Xiang Changsha /fan¹³/
    /uan¹³/
    Xiangtan /ɦɔn¹²/
    Gan Nanchang /uɔŋ⁴⁵/
    Hakka Meixian /voŋ¹¹/
    Taoyuan /voŋ¹¹/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /wɔŋ²¹/
    Nanning /wɔŋ²¹/
    Hong Kong /wɔŋ²¹/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /hɔŋ³⁵/
    /ŋ³⁵/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /uoŋ⁵³/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /uaŋ⁴⁴/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /ŋ⁵⁵/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /huaŋ³¹/
    /ui³¹/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (33)
    Final () (102)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Closed
    Division () I
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ɦwɑŋ/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ɦʷɑŋ/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ɣuɑŋ/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ɦwaŋ/
    Li
    Rong
    /ɣuɑŋ/
    Wang
    Li
    /ɣuɑŋ/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ɣwɑŋ/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    huáng
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    huáng
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ hwang ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*N-kʷˁaŋ/
    English yellow

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 5380
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*ɡʷaːŋ/
    Notes

    Definitions[edit]

    1. yellow (colour)
      /   ―  huáng  ―  yellow color
    2. Short for 蛋黃蛋黄 (dànhuáng, “yolk”).
      白蓮月餅 [Cantonese, trad.]
      白莲月饼 [Cantonese, simp.]
      soeng1 wong4-2 baak6 lin4 jung4 jyut6 beng2 [Jyutping]
      double yolk and lotus paste mooncake
    3. Short for 蟹黃蟹黄 (xièhuáng).
    4. yellow; Far East Asian
    5. (colloquial) pornographic; lewd
      /   ―  huángpiàn  ―  adult movie
    6. (colloquial) to fizzle out; to fall through
      某些公司 [MSC, trad.]
      某些公司 [MSC, simp.]
      Mǒuxiē gōngsī zhēn shi jué le, shōu shá huáng shá. [Pinyin]
      Some companies are really sucktastic; whatever [they] purchase flops.
      這次旅遊興致扒手兒 [dialectal Mandarin, trad.]
      这次旅游兴致扒手儿 [dialectal Mandarin, simp.]
      Zhèi cì lǚyóu de xìngzhi ràng páshǒur gěi jiǎo huáng le. [Pinyin]
      The high spirit of this trip was ruined by a pickpocket.
    7. (Min Nan) to ripen
    8. Short for 黃帝黄帝 (Huángdì).
    9. A surname​.
      / [Min Nan]  ―  Ûiⁿ Hūi-lân [Pe̍h-ōe-jī]  ―  Oei Hui-lan (a Chinese-Indonesian socialite and First Lady of the Republic of China)

    Descendants[edit]

    Sino-Xenic ():
    • Japanese: (おう) (ō); (こう) ()
    • Korean: (, Hwang)
    • Vietnamese: Huỳnh (), Hoàng ()

    Others:

    Compounds[edit]


    Japanese[edit]

    Shinjitai

    Kyūjitai

    Kanji[edit]

    (“Jinmeiyō” kanji used for nameskyūjitai kanji, shinjitai form )

    1. Kyūjitai form of

    Readings[edit]


    Korean[edit]

    Hanja[edit]

    (eumhun 누를 (nureul hwang))

    1. Hanja form? of (yellow;a surname).

    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    : Hán Nôm readings: hoàng/Hoàng, Huỳnh

    1. Yellow
    2. A surname

    References[edit]