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See also:
U+9ED1, 黑
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-9ED1

[U+9ED0]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+9ED2]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
黑-order.gif

Han character[edit]

(radical 203, +0, 12 strokes, cangjie input 田土火 (WGF), four-corner 60331)

  1. Kangxi radical #203, .

Derived characters[edit]

Descendants[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 1518, character 36
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 48038
  • Dae Jaweon: page 2051, character 13
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 7, page 4743, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+9ED1

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.
alternative forms
𪐗

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Spring and Autumn Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Qin slip script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
黑-oracle.svg 黑-bronze.svg 黑-bronze-spring.svg 黒-silk.svg 黑-slip.svg 黑-seal.svg 黒-bigseal.svg

Pictogram (象形) – a person () with a tattooed face, depicting penal tattooing (), one of the five punishments of ancient China. In the bronze inscriptions from the Spring and Autumn and Warring States periods, dots were sometimes added around , leading Shuowen to erroneously interpret the character as an ideogrammic compound (會意): 𡆧 (chimney) +  (fire; flame) — fire burning under a chimney, causing it to become black from the smoke.

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *s-maŋ ~ s-mak. Cognate with (OC *mlɯːɡ, “ink”).

The sense of “hack” is a phono-semantic matching of English hack.

Pronunciation[edit]


Note: hěi - variant used in some contexts, e.g. 黑豆.

  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /xei⁵⁵/
Harbin /xei⁴⁴/
Tianjin /xei²¹/
Jinan /xei²¹³/
Qingdao /xe⁵⁵/
Zhengzhou /xɛ²⁴/
Xi'an /xei²¹/
Xining /xɨ⁴⁴/
Yinchuan /xɯ¹³/
Lanzhou /xə/
Ürümqi /xei⁴⁴/
Wuhan /xɤ²¹³/
Chengdu /xe³¹/
Guiyang /xɛ²¹/
Kunming /xə³¹/
Nanjing /xəʔ⁵/
Hefei /xɐʔ⁵/
Jin Taiyuan /xəʔ²/
Pingyao /xʌʔ¹³/
Hohhot /xəʔ⁴³/
Wu Shanghai /həʔ⁵/
Suzhou /həʔ⁵/
Hangzhou /hɑʔ⁵/
Wenzhou /he²¹³/
Hui Shexian /xeʔ²¹/
Tunxi /xə⁵/
Xiang Changsha /xə²⁴/
Xiangtan /hæ²⁴/
Gan Nanchang /hɛʔ⁵/
Hakka Meixian /het̚¹/
Taoyuan /het̚²²/
Cantonese Guangzhou /hɐk̚⁵/
/hak̚⁵/
Nanning /hɐk̚⁵⁵/
Hong Kong /hɐk̚⁵/
/hak̚⁵/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /hik̚³²/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /haiʔ²³/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /xɛ²⁴/
Shantou (Min Nan) /hek̚²/
Haikou (Min Nan) /ɔu²³/ 訓烏

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (32)
Final () (131)
Tone (調) Checked (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () I
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/hək̚/
Pan
Wuyun
/hək̚/
Shao
Rongfen
/xək̚/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/hək̚/
Li
Rong
/xək̚/
Wang
Li
/xək̚/
Bernard
Karlgren
/xək̚/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
he
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
hēi
Middle
Chinese
‹ xok ›
Old
Chinese
/*m̥ˁək/ (dialect *m̥ˁ- > xˁ-)
English black

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 5109
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*hmlɯːɡ/

Definitions[edit]

  1. black
      ―  hēi  ―  black color
    帽子  ―  Tā dài zhe hēi màozǐ.  ―  She's wearing a black hat.
  2. dark; darkness
    這麼 / 这么  ―  Zhème hēi, wǒ kàn bù jiàn.  ―  It's so dark; I can't see.
      ―  Tā hěn pà hēi.  ―  She is very afraid of the dark.
  3. evening; night
  4. illegal; clandestine; secret; shady
      ―  hēishì  ―  black market
    /   ―  hēibāng  ―  criminal gang
    名單 / 名单  ―  hēimíngdān  ―  blacklist
  5. (colloquial) to illegally reside (in a country)
  6. sinister; evil
  7. to make fun of; to mock
  8. (computing) to hack
      ―  hēi  ―  hacker
  9. (colloquial) to libel
    有一說一 [MSC, trad.]
    有一说一 [MSC, simp.]
    Zhè jiàn shì, wǒ kě shì yǒu yī shuō yī, bù chuī bù hēi. [Pinyin]
    As for this thing, I say it as it is and don't boast or libel.
    ××一次 [MSC, trad.]
    ××一次 [MSC, simp.]
    Zhè shì × × bèi hēi de zuì cǎn de yī cì. [Pinyin]
    This is the time when **** is libelled the most badly.
  10. one who libels
  11. (by extention) hater
  12. Short for 黑龍江黑龙江 (Hēilóngjiāng, “Heilongjiang province”).

Synonyms[edit]

Compounds[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Shinjitai

Kyūjitai

Kanji[edit]

(“Jinmeiyō” kanji used for nameskyūjitai kanji, shinjitai form )

  1. black

Readings[edit]


Khitan[edit]

Noun[edit]

(kara)

  1. west

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

(heuk) (hangeul )

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(hắc)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.