黑暗

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See also: 黒暗

Chinese[edit]

black; dark; Heilongjiang Province (abbrev.)
 
dark; gloomy; hidden; secret
simp. and trad.
(黑暗)
variant forms 黑黯

Pronunciation[edit]



Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1 1/1
Initial () (32) (34)
Final () (131) (159)
Tone (調) Checked (Ø) Departing (H)
Openness (開合) Open Open
Division () I I
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/hək̚/ /ʔʌmH/
Pan
Wuyun
/hək̚/ /ʔəmH/
Shao
Rongfen
/xək̚/ /ʔɒmH/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/hək̚/ /ʔəmH/
Li
Rong
/xək̚/ /ʔᴀmH/
Wang
Li
/xək̚/ /ɒmH/
Bernard
Karlgren
/xək̚/ /ʔămH/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
he àn

Etymology 1[edit]

Adjective[edit]

黑暗

  1. dark; unlighted
  2. (figuratively) backward; unenlightened; evil; corrupt; sordid
Synonyms[edit]
Antonyms[edit]
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

The 9th-century Miscellaneous Morsels from Youyang described 黑暗 (MC hək̚ ʔʌmH, “lit. black-dark”) as the name for “rhinoceros(-horn)” in the place Po-se (波斯, “Persia”), in parallel to 白暗 (MC bˠæk̚ ʔʌmH, “lit. white-dark”), the designation for “ivory”.

Laufer (1914: 145) and Laufer (1967: 473) pointed out that these names cannot be Persian, but are Malayan in origin. Additionally, it is clear that neither the Malayan words for “rhinoceros-horn” and “ivory”, nor the words for “rhinoceros” and “elephant”, are implicated in these etymologies. It appears that these two Chinese words are corruptions of the colour names “black” and “white”, with which the local traders in Malaya at the time distinguished rhinoceros-horn and ivory.

Laufer compared the former with Jarai [Term?] (hötam), Cebuano itom, Malay hitam, Javanese item, Tagalog itim, all meaning “black” (in Austronesian languages), and the latter with: Čam bauṅ, boṅ, or bhuṅ; Senoi biūg, other forms in the Sakei and Semang languages of Malakka biok, biäk, biēg, begiäk, bekuṅ, bekog; Alfur, Boloven, Kon tu, Kaseng, Lave, and Niah bok, Sedeng röboṅ, Stieng bōk (“white”); Bahnar bak (Mon bu), most of which are the Mon-Khmer words for “white” (proto-form *kɓɔɔk and *kbooʔ).

Noun[edit]

黑暗

  1. (obsolete) rhinoceros horn
See also[edit]

Japanese[edit]

Kanji in this term
こく
Jinmeiyō
あん
Grade: 3
on’yomi

Noun[edit]

黑暗 (kyūjitai kanji, shinjitai kanji 黒暗, hiragana こくあん, rōmaji kokuan)

  1. absolute darkness
  2. (Buddhism) a complete lack of virtue or wisdom
  3. (color) pure black