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U+8870, 衰
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-8870

[U+886F]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+8871]

Translingual[edit]

Han character[edit]

(Kangxi radical 145, +4, 10 strokes, cangjie input 卜田一女 (YWMV), four-corner 00732, composition or ⿻)

Derived characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 1112, character 14
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 34127
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1577, character 21
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 5, page 3076, character 9
  • Unihan data for U+8870

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.
alternative forms 𠆏
𠆂
𠱗

Etymology 1[edit]

Compare Khmer រៀវ (riəw, to diminish; to decrease), Mizo zuai (to decline (in diligence, enthusiasm, industry, etc.)) (Schuessler, 2007).

Pronunciation[edit]



  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /ʂuai⁵⁵/
Harbin /ʂuai⁴⁴/
/suai⁴⁴/
Tianjin /suai²¹/
Jinan /ʂuɛ²¹³/
Qingdao /ʂuɛ²¹³/
Zhengzhou /ʂuai²⁴/
Xi'an /fai²¹/
Xining /fɛ⁴⁴/
Yinchuan /ʂuɛ⁴⁴/
Lanzhou /fɛ³¹/
Ürümqi /ʂuai⁴⁴/
/fai⁴⁴/
Wuhan /suai⁵⁵/
Chengdu /suai⁵⁵/
Guiyang /suai⁵⁵/
Kunming /ʂuæ⁴⁴/
Nanjing /ʂuae³¹/
Hefei /ʂue̞²¹/
Jin Taiyuan /suai¹¹/
Pingyao /t͡sʰuæ¹³/
/suæ¹³/
Hohhot /suɛ³¹/
Wu Shanghai /se⁵³/
Suzhou /se̞⁵⁵/
Hangzhou /se̞³³/
Wenzhou /sai³³/
Hui Shexian /sɛ³¹/
Tunxi /so¹¹/
Xiang Changsha /ɕyai³³/
Xiangtan /sai³³/
Gan Nanchang
Hakka Meixian /soi⁴⁴/
Taoyuan /soi²⁴/
Cantonese Guangzhou /søy⁵³/
Nanning /sui⁵⁵/
Hong Kong /søy⁵⁵/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /sue⁵⁵/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /søy⁴⁴/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /so⁵⁴/
Shantou (Min Nan) /sue³³/
Haikou (Min Nan) /suai²³/
/sɔi²³/ ~弱
/sue²³/ 倒霉

Rime
Character
Reading # 2/2
Initial () (21)
Final () (18)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Closed
Division () Chongniu III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ʃˠiuɪ/
Pan
Wuyun
/ʃʷᵚi/
Shao
Rongfen
/ʃiuɪ/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ʂjwi/
Li
Rong
/ʃjui/
Wang
Li
/ʃwi/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ʂwi/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
shuāi
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
seoi1
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 3/3
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
shuāi
Middle
Chinese
‹ srwij ›
Old
Chinese
/*sruj/
English diminish, decline

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 2/2
No. 11927
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
3
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*srul/

Definitions[edit]

  1. to grow weak; to decrease in strength; to decline
    未老先  ―  wèilǎoxiānshuāi  ―  to decline in health before becoming old
  2. (Cantonese, Min Nan, Taiwanese Hakka) to have bad luck
    行路 [Cantonese, trad. and simp.]
    jan4 seoi1 haang4 lou6 daa2 dou2 tan3 [Jyutping]
    when luck is bad, you can’t even walk straight
    [Cantonese]  ―  seoi1 zuk1 ng5 nin4 [Jyutping]  ―  had five years of completely bad luck
  3. (Cantonese, Hakka) bad; detestable; awful
    [Cantonese]  ―  gam3 seoi1 gaa4! [Jyutping]  ―  That's awful!
    [Cantonese]  ―  gam3 seoi1 dou1 jau5! [Jyutping]  ―  How can it be this awful!
    [Cantonese]  ―  zou6 seoi1 je5 [Jyutping]  ―  to do bad things
    [Cantonese]  ―  seoi1 jan4 [Jyutping]  ―  bad person
    [Cantonese]  ―  seoi1 po4-2 [Jyutping]  ―  bitch
  4. (Cantonese) to make a grave mistake
    [Cantonese]  ―  ngo5 seoi1 zo2 laa1! [Jyutping]  ―  I've made a mistake!
    今次可以 [Cantonese, trad. and simp.]
    gam1 ci3 m4 ho2 ji5 zoi3 seoi1 dak1 gaa3 laa3! [Jyutping]
    (We) can’t screw it up anymore this time
    機會口氣 [Cantonese, trad.]
    机会口气 [Cantonese, simp.]
    From: 1986, 英雄本色 (A Better Tomorrow)
    ngo5 seoi1 zo2 saam1 nin4, ngo5 dang2 gan2 go3 gei1 wui5, caang1 faan1 hau2 hei3. [Jyutping]
    I had suffered three years of bad luck, I’m waiting for my turn to get everything back. (In context: spent three years in jail)
  5. (Cantonese) to do (wrongdoing)
    [Cantonese]  ―  nei5 seoi1 me1 aa3? [Jyutping]  ―  what did you do wrongly?
    [Cantonese]  ―  ngo5 seoi1 bin1 faan6 ze1? [Jyutping]  ―  What’s my wrongdoing/offence (often with legal implications)?
    [Cantonese, trad.]
    [Cantonese, simp.]
    seoi1 sap6 jat1, seoi1 faan3 duk6 [Jyutping]
    got arrested for sex with minor/drug trafficking
  6. (Cantonese) to suffer from faulty personality traits or habits, or commit minor faults with moderate to significant consequences.
    [Cantonese, trad.]
    [Cantonese, simp.]
    dou1 hai6 ngo5 seoi1 sam1 jyun5. [Jyutping]
    I had been too kind-hearted/forgiving.
    成日遲到成日迟到 [Cantonese]  ―  sing4 jat6 seoi1 ci4 dou3. [Jyutping]  ―  He messes up all the time for being late.
    靚仔 [Cantonese, trad.]
    靓仔 [Cantonese, simp.]
    ngo5 zau6 hai6 seoi1 zoi6 taai3 leng3 zai2. [Jyutping]
    My wrong is being too handsome.
Synonyms[edit]
  • (to have bad luck): 倒霉 (dǎoméi)
Antonyms[edit]
  • (Cantonese: disagreeable): (hou2)
See also[edit]
  • (Cantonese: disagreeable): (jai5), (ok3)

Compounds[edit]

Descendants[edit]

  • English: suay
  • Indonesian: soe
  • Thai: ซวย (suai)

Etymology 2[edit]

Schuessler (2007) reconstructs the Old Chinese minimally as *k-sroi, treating it as (OC *srui) (etymology 1) with the initial *k.

Pronunciation[edit]



Rime
Character
Reading # 1/2
Initial () (19)
Final () (14)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Closed
Division () Chongniu III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/t͡ʃʰˠiuᴇ/
Pan
Wuyun
/ʈ͡ʂʰʷᵚiɛ/
Shao
Rongfen
/t͡ʃʰiuɛ/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ʈ͡ʂʰjwiə̆/
Li
Rong
/t͡ʃʰjue/
Wang
Li
/t͡ʃʰǐwe/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ʈ͡ʂʰwie̯/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
chuāi
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
ceoi1
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 2/3
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
cuī
Middle
Chinese
‹ tsrhjwe ›
Old
Chinese
/*[tsʰ]roj/
English reduce

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/2
No. 11926
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
3
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*sʰrol/

Definitions[edit]

  1. to reduce; to decrease in order

Etymology 3[edit]

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Pronunciation[edit]



Rime
Character
Reading # 1/2
Initial () (19)
Final () (14)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Closed
Division () Chongniu III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/t͡ʃʰˠiuᴇ/
Pan
Wuyun
/ʈ͡ʂʰʷᵚiɛ/
Shao
Rongfen
/t͡ʃʰiuɛ/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ʈ͡ʂʰjwiə̆/
Li
Rong
/t͡ʃʰjue/
Wang
Li
/t͡ʃʰǐwe/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ʈ͡ʂʰwie̯/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
chuāi
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
ceoi1
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/3
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
cuī
Middle
Chinese
‹ tshwoj ›
Old
Chinese
/*[s.r̥]ˁruj/
English mourning clothes

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/2
No. 11926
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
3
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*sʰrol/

Definitions[edit]

  1. Alternative form of (cuī, “a type of mourning garment made of sackcloth”).

Compounds[edit]

References[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(common “Jōyō” kanji)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]


Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

(soe, choe, sa) (hangeul , , , revised soe, choe, sa, McCune–Reischauer soe, ch'oe, sa, Yale soy, choy, sa)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

: Hán Nôm readings: suy, thôi, thoai

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.