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U+58DE, 壞
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-58DE

[U+58DD]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+58DF]

Translingual[edit]

Traditional
Shinjitai
Simplified

Han character[edit]

(Kangxi radical 32, +16, 19 strokes, cangjie input 土卜田女 (GYWV), four-corner 44132, composition )

Derived characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • Kangxi Dictionary: page 242, character 3
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 5590
  • Dae Jaweon: page 481, character 27
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 1, page 500, character 2
  • Unihan data for U+58DE

Chinese[edit]

Glyph origin[edit]

Phono-semantic compound (形聲形声, OC *ɡruːls): semantic (earth) + phonetic (OC *ɡruːl, *ɡruːl).

Etymology 1[edit]

trad.
simp. *
alternative forms

Compare Tibetan འདྲུལ ('drul, to become putrid/rotten), Tibetan བྲུལ (brul, crumbles) (Hill, 2019).

Pronunciation[edit]


Note:
  • huai7 - literary;
  • huai1 - vernacular.
  • Wu
  • Xiang
  • Note:
    • fai4 - literary;
    • fai5 - vernacular.

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/2 2/2
    Initial () (28) (33)
    Final () (34) (34)
    Tone (調) Departing (H) Departing (H)
    Openness (開合) Closed Closed
    Division () II II
    Fanqie
    Baxter kweajH hweajH
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /kˠuɛiH/ /ɦˠuɛiH/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /kʷᵚæiH/ /ɦʷᵚæiH/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /kuɐiH/ /ɣuɐiH/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /kwəɨjH/ /ɦwəɨjH/
    Li
    Rong
    /kuɛiH/ /ɣuɛiH/
    Wang
    Li
    /kwɐiH/ /ɣwɐiH/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /kwăiH/ /ɣwăiH/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    guài huài
    Expected
    Cantonese
    Reflex
    gwaai3 waai6
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/5 2/5 3/5 4/5 5/5
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    huài huài huài huài huài
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ hwɛjH › ‹ hwɛjH › ‹ hwojX › ‹ hwojX › ‹ kwɛjH ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*N-[k]ˁ<r>uj-s/ /*m-[k]ˁ<r>uj-s/ /*N-[k]ˁujʔ/ /*m-[k]ˁujʔ/ /*[k]ʷˁ<r>ujʔ-s/
    English be destroyed destroy be destroyed destroy destroy

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 5344
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    2
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*ɡruːls/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. bad
        ―  huàirén  ―  bad person
      習慣习惯  ―  huài xíguàn  ―  bad habits
    2. rotten; spoiled
      雞蛋鸡蛋  ―  huài jīdàn  ―  rotten egg
      蘋果苹果  ―  Zhè píngguǒ huài le.  ―  This apple is rotten.
      牛奶牛奶  ―  Niúnǎi huài le.  ―  The milk is spoiled.
    3. to spoil; to ruin
      大事大事  ―  huài le dàshì  ―  to ruin an important thing
      過期牛奶肚子 [MSC, trad.]
      过期牛奶肚子 [MSC, simp.]
      Guòqī de niúnǎi hē le huì huài dùzi. [Pinyin]
      Drinking expired milk will (would cause or lead to) upset stomach (gastrointestinal symptoms).
    4. to break; to stop working
      鏡子镜子  ―  jìngzǐ shuāi huài le  ―  to have smashed a mirror
      聽說掃地機器人容易 [MSC, trad.]
      听说扫地机器人容易 [MSC, simp.]
      Tīngshuō sǎodì jīqìrén hěn róngyì huài. [Pinyin]
      I've heard that robot vacuums breaks (stops working) very easily.
      而家真係犀利 [Cantonese, trad.]
      而家真系犀利 [Cantonese, simp.]
      dou3 ji4 gaa1 dou1 zung6 mei6 waai6, zan1 hai6 sai1 lei6. [Jyutping]
      It's amazing, it hasn't broken.
    5. (Classical Chinese) to collapse
    6. (Classical Chinese) to demolish; to destroy
    7. bad idea; dirty trick
    8. extremely; very; highly
        ―  xià huài le  ―  to be badly scared
    Synonyms[edit]
    • (bad):
    • (to spoil):
    • (to ruin):
    • (extremely):
    Antonyms[edit]
    • (bad): (hǎo)

    Compounds[edit]

    Etymology 2[edit]

    trad.
    simp. *
    alternative forms

    Siyi

    (This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

    Pronunciation[edit]


    Definitions[edit]

    1. (Cantonese) naughty; mischievous; rebellious; disobedient
    Synonyms[edit]

    Japanese[edit]

    Shinjitai

    Kyūjitai

    Kanji[edit]

    (“Jinmeiyō” kanji used for nameskyūjitai kanji, shinjitai form )

    1. Kyūjitai form of : break

    Readings[edit]

    Korean[edit]

    Etymology[edit]

    From Middle Chinese (MC kweajH).

    Historical readings

    Pronunciation[edit]

    • (SK Standard/Seoul) IPA(key): [kwe̞(ː)] ~ [kø̞(ː)]
    • Phonetic hangul: [(ː)/(ː)]
      • Though still prescribed in Standard Korean, most speakers in both Koreas no longer distinguish vowel length.

    Hanja[edit]

    Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

    Wikisource

    (eumhun 무너질 (muneojil goe))

    1. Hanja form? of (to break; to collapse).

    Compounds[edit]

    References[edit]

    • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [1]

    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    : Hán Nôm readings: hoại, hoải, hoai

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.