Reconstruction:Proto-Sino-Tibetan/s-maŋ ~ s-mak

Definition from Wiktionary, the free dictionary
Jump to navigation Jump to search
This Proto-Sino-Tibetan entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.



  • Proto-Sino-Tibetan: *s-mak ⪤ s-maŋ (Matisoff, 1983); *smək (Coblin, 1986)
    • Proto-Tibeto-Burman: *s-maŋ ⪤ *s-mak (Matisoff, STEDT)


*s-maŋ ~ s-mak

  1. black
  2. dark
  3. ink
  4. deep


  • Old Chinese: (*C.mˁək (B-S); mlɯːg (ZS), ink); (*m̥ˁək, dial. *m̥ˁ- › xˁ- (B-S); *m̥lɯːg (ZS), black)
    ( in the oracle bone script) 黑-bronze.svg
    • Middle Chinese: /mək/, /hək/

         Japanese:   (ぼく, ​boku)
            Korean:   (, muk)
            Vietnamese:  mặc

         Vietnamese:  mực (cuttlefish; ink)
            Thai:  หมึก (mèuk, ink), ปลาหมึก (bplaa mèuk, cuttlefish)
            Lao:  ມຶກ (mưk, ink; black), ຫມຶກ (mưk, black; ink), ໝຶກ (mưk, sepia from cuttlefish; ink; black)
            Khmer:  មឹក (mɨk, squid; ink)

         Japanese:   (こく, ​koku)
            Korean:   (, heuk)
            Vietnamese:  hắc

      • Modern Mandarin
        • Beijing: () /mu̯ɔ⁵¹/), (hēi) /xeɪ̯⁵⁵/)
  • Himalayish
    • Tibeto-Kanauri
  • Lolo-Burmese-Naxi

See also[edit]

  • *s-nak (black) - a similar root; possibly descendant of this etymon, from assimilation of the root initial (in place of articulation) by the prefix *s-.