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See also: and
U+661F, 星
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-661F

[U+661E]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+6620]

Translingual

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Stroke order
9 strokes

Han character

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(Kangxi radical 72, +5, 9 strokes, cangjie input 日竹手一 (AHQM), four-corner 60104, composition )

Derived characters

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References

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  • Kangxi Dictionary: page 492, character 21
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 13837
  • Dae Jaweon: page 855, character 22
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 2, page 1500, character 12
  • Unihan data for U+661F

Chinese

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simp. and trad.
alternative forms

Glyph origin

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Simplified from (), which is a phono-semantic compound (形聲形声, OC *sleːŋ) : semantic (twinkling stars) + phonetic (OC *sʰleːŋ, *sreŋs).

Etymology 1

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Baxter and Sagart (2014) reconstructs the Old Chinese as *s-tsʰˤeŋ, which can be analysed as a verbal root *tsʰˤeŋ (bright) with a prefix *s-. This reconstruction accounts for the Min initial *tsh- and the use of the character to write the word (OC *N-tsʰeŋ).

Possibly related to (OC *sʰleŋ, “clear”) (Schuessler, 2007; Baxter and Sagart, 2014), in turn from Proto-Sino-Tibetan *(t)s(j)aŋ (clear; pure; clean).

Proto-Kiranti *saŋ (star) either develops from a parallel Sino-Tibetan root (Schuessler, 2007) or derives from Proto-Sino-Tibetan *s-kar (star) (STEDT).

Pronunciation

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Note:
  • sing1 - literary;
  • seng1 - vernacular (uncommon).
Note:
  • lhiang1-4 - vernacular;
  • lhen1 - literary.
Note:
  • xiang1 - vernacular;
  • xin1 - literary.
Note:
  • xing1 - literary;
  • xi1 - vernacular (limited, e.g. 星宿 (xīngxiù)).
Note:
  • chhiⁿ/chheⁿ/seⁿ - vernacular;
  • san - vernacular (limited, e.g. 零星 (língxīng));
  • seng - literary.
Note:
  • ce1 - vernacular;
  • xing1 - literary.

  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /ɕiŋ⁵⁵/
Harbin /ɕiŋ⁴⁴/
Tianjin /ɕiŋ²¹/
Jinan /ɕiŋ²¹³/
Qingdao /siŋ²¹³/
Zhengzhou /siŋ²⁴/
Xi'an /ɕiŋ²¹/
Xining /ɕiə̃⁴⁴/
Yinchuan /ɕiŋ⁴⁴/
Lanzhou /ɕĩn³¹/
Ürümqi /ɕiŋ⁴⁴/
Wuhan /ɕin⁵⁵/
Chengdu /ɕin⁵⁵/
Guiyang /ɕin⁵⁵/
Kunming /ɕĩ⁴⁴/
Nanjing /sin³¹/
Hefei /ɕin²¹/
Jin Taiyuan /ɕi¹¹/ ~宿
/ɕiəŋ¹¹/ 五~
Pingyao /ɕiŋ¹³/
/sei¹³/ 掃帚~
Hohhot /ɕĩŋ³¹/ 星~
/ɕi³¹/ 河~~
Wu Shanghai /ɕiŋ⁵³/
Suzhou /sin⁵⁵/
Hangzhou /ɕin³³/
Wenzhou /seŋ³³/
Hui Shexian /siʌ̃³¹/
Tunxi /sɛ¹¹/
Xiang Changsha /din³³/
Xiangtan /sian³³/
/sin³³/
Gan Nanchang /ɕiɑŋ⁴²/
/ɕin⁴²/ ~子縣
Hakka Meixian /sen⁴⁴/
Taoyuan /sen²⁴/
Cantonese Guangzhou /seŋ⁵³/
Nanning /ɬɛŋ⁵⁵/
/ɬeŋ⁵⁵/
Hong Kong /siŋ⁵⁵/
Min Xiamen (Hokkien) /siŋ⁵⁵/
/t͡sʰĩ⁵⁵/
Fuzhou (Eastern Min) /siŋ⁴⁴/
Jian'ou (Northern Min) /saiŋ⁵⁴/
Shantou (Teochew) /t͡sʰẽ³³/
Haikou (Hainanese) /seŋ²³/
/sɛ²³/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (16)
Final () (125)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () IV
Fanqie
Baxter seng
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/seŋ/
Pan
Wuyun
/seŋ/
Shao
Rongfen
/sɛŋ/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/sɛjŋ/
Li
Rong
/seŋ/
Wang
Li
/sieŋ/
Bernard
Karlgren
/sieŋ/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
xīng
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
sing1
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
xīng
Middle
Chinese
‹ seng ›
Old
Chinese
/*s-tsʰˁeŋ/
English star

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 11371
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*sleːŋ/
Notes

Definitions

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Five-pointed star shape
  1. star; planet; heavenly body (Classifier: m;  c mn)
      ―  xīngxing  ―  star
      ―  héngxīng  ―  (fixed) star
  2. star-shaped object
  3. asterisk
  4. star; celebrity
      ―  míngxīng  ―  bright star; celebrity
  5. weight marks on a steelyard
  6. a bit; a tiny bit
  7. tiny; minute
  8. whitish; white
  9. numerous and scattered everywhere; countless
  10. rapid; flying
  11. Synonym of 碰鈴碰铃 (pènglíng)
  12. (dated or informal) Short for 星加坡 (Xīngjiāpō, “Singapore”).
    馬泰马泰  ―  Xīng Mǎ Tài  ―  Singapore, Malaysia and Thailand
  13. (Cantonese) to slap someone in the face
  14. a surname: Xing
Synonyms
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  • (star):

Compounds

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Descendants

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Sino-Xenic ():
  • Japanese: (せい) (sei)
  • Korean: 성(星) (seong)
  • Vietnamese: tinh ()

Etymology 2

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Pronunciation

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Definitions

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  1. transliteration of Indian name Singh

Compounds

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Japanese

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Kanji

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(Second grade kyōiku kanji)

Readings

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Compounds

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Etymology 1

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Kanji in this term
ほし
Grade: 2
kun'yomi
Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia ja
English Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia

/posi//ɸoɕi//hoɕi/

From Old Japanese, from Proto-Japonic *pəsi.

Pronunciation

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Noun

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(ほし) (hoshi

  1. (astronomy) a star (luminous celestial body)
    Synonym: 恒星 (kōsei)
  2. (geometry) a star (concave polygon with regular, pointy protrusions and indentations, especially used as a symbol to rate quality)
  3. (tarot) the Star
  4. (loosely) a celestial body
    Synonym: 天体 (tentai)
  5. (poetic, especially fiction) planet
    See also: 星人 (seijin)
    この(ほし)(まも)()めた
    kono hoshi o mamoru to kimeta
    made the decision to protect Earth
  6. (by extension of a star's movement) time, years
  7. (sumo) a round mark indicating a victory or defeat in a bout
  8. a 家紋 (kamon, family crest) with various representations of stars
  9. a star (actor in a leading role)
  10. an objective
    Synonym: 目星 (meboshi)
    1. (slang) the perp, the culprit
  11. a kagura song sung at the end of a 御神楽 (mikagura)
Quotations
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For quotations using this term, see Citations:星.

Derived terms
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See also
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Proper noun

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(ほし) (Hoshi

  1. a surname

Etymology 2

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Kanji in this term
せい
Grade: 2
kan'on

From Middle Chinese (MC seng).

The Singapore sense derives from the pre-World War Two kanji spelling 星加坡 (modern kanji spelling 新加坡) as borrowed from Chinese, itself a transliteration of Malay Singapura.

Pronunciation

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  • Note: the pitch accent for the suffix is determined by the entire term.

Proper noun

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(せい) (Sei

  1. (Chinese astronomy) one of the Twenty-Eight Mansions in the Chinese system of constellations
  2. Short for シンガポール (Shingapōru): Singapore

Suffix

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(せい) (-sei

  1. (loosely, especially fiction) attached to names of planets
    • 1996 February 20 [1988 February 15], Mitsuru Adachi, “なにがなんだか 前編 [What’s What: First Chapter]”, in SHORT PROGRAM(ショート・プログラム) [SHORT PROGRAM], 25th edition, volume 1 (fiction), Tokyo: Shogakukan, →ISBN, page 256:
      ——あ、わたくしマキシムAGFです。リプトン(せい)からやってまいりました。()(きゅう)(さむ)さにおどろいてます。どぞよろしく。
      ——A, watakushi Makishimu Ējīefu desu. Riputon-sei kara yatte mairimashita. Chikyū no samusa ni odoroitemasu. Dozo yoroshiku.
      ——Oh, my name is Maxim AGF. I came here from planet Lipton. I’m still taken aback by Earth’s coldness. It is a pleasure to meet all of you.
Derived terms
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Affix

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(せい) (sei

  1. star, celestial body
    (せい)(うん)seiunnebula (literally, “star cloud”)
    (せい)(だん)seidanstar cluster
    (せい)()seizustar chart
  2. passing of time
  3. star, celebrity
Derived terms
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References

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  1. 1.0 1.1 Matsumura, Akira, editor (2006), 大辞林 [Daijirin] (in Japanese), Third edition, Tokyo: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  2. ^ NHK Broadcasting Culture Research Institute, editor (1998), NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 [NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary] (in Japanese), Tokyo: NHK Publishing, Inc., →ISBN

Korean

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Etymology

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From Middle Chinese (MC seng).

Historical Readings
Dongguk Jeongun Reading
Dongguk Jeongun, 1448 셔ᇰ (Yale: syèng)
Middle Korean
Text Eumhun
Gloss (hun) Reading
Hunmong Jahoe, 1527[1] 별〯 (Yale: pyěl) 셔ᇰ (Yale: syèng)

Pronunciation

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Hanja

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Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

Wikisource

(eumhun (byeol seong))

  1. hanja form? of (star; planet)

Compounds

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References

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  • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [2]

Old Japanese

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Etymology

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From Proto-Japonic *pəsi.

Noun

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(posi) (kana ほし)

  1. a star

Quotations

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For quotations using this term, see Citations:星.

Derived terms

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Descendants

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  • Japanese: (hoshi)

Vietnamese

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Han character

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: Hán Nôm readings: tinh, tình

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.