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U+661F, 星
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-661F

[U+661E]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+6620]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
9 strokes

Han character[edit]

(radical 72, +5, 9 strokes, cangjie input 日竹手一 (AHQM), four-corner 60104, composition)

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 492, character 21
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 13837
  • Dae Jaweon: page 855, character 22
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 2, page 1500, character 12
  • Unihan data for U+661F

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.

Glyph origin[edit]

Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*sʰlɯː
*sʰleːns
*sʰleːns, *ʔsreːŋ
*sʰleːns, *sʰleŋs
*sʰleːns
*sʰeːns
*sʰeːns
*sʰleːŋ, *sreŋs
*sreŋ
*sreŋ
*sreŋ
*sreŋ, *sleːŋ
*sreŋ
*sreŋ, *sreŋs
*sreŋ, *seːŋ
*sreŋ
*sreŋʔ
*sreŋs
*zreːŋ
*ʔsleŋ, *ʔsleŋs
*ʔsleŋ
*ʔsleŋ, *sʰleːŋ
*ʔsleŋ, *sʰleːŋ
*ʔsleŋ
*ʔsleŋ, *zleŋs, *zleŋʔ
*ʔsleŋ, *sʰleŋʔ
*ʔsleŋ
*ʔsleŋ
*ʔsleŋ
*sʰleŋ
*sʰleŋ
*sʰleŋʔ, *zleŋs, *zleŋ
*sʰleŋs
*zleŋs, *zleŋ
*zleŋs
*zleŋ
*zleŋ
*zleŋ
*zleŋʔ
*zleŋʔ
*seŋʔ, *seːŋs
*seŋʔ, *seːŋ
*sleŋs
*sleŋs
*l̥ʰeŋs
*ʔljeŋ, *sʰleːŋ
*sʰleːŋ
*sʰleːŋ, *sʰleːŋs
*sʰleːŋs
*sleːŋ
*sleːŋ
*sleːŋ
*sleːŋ
*seːŋ, *seːŋs
*seːŋ
*seːŋ, *seːŋʔ, *seːŋs
*seːŋ

Originally (OC *sleːŋ), which is a phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *sleːŋ): semantic  (twinkling stars) + phonetic  (OC *sʰleːŋ, *sreŋs).

Etymology[edit]

Baxter and Sagart (2014) reconstructs the Old Chinese as *s-tsʰˤeŋ, which can be analysed as a verbal root *tsʰˤeŋ (bright) with a prefix *s-. This reconstruction accounts for the Min initial *tsh- and the use of the character to write the word (OC *N-tsʰeŋ).

Possibly related to (OC *sʰleŋ, “clear”) (Schuessler, 2007; Baxter and Sagart, 2014), in turn from Proto-Sino-Tibetan *(t)s(j)aŋ (clear; pure; clean).

Proto-Kiranti *saŋ (star) either develops from a parallel Sino-Tibetan root (Schuessler, 2007) or derives from Proto-Sino-Tibetan *s-kar (star) (STEDT).

Pronunciation[edit]


Note:
  • sing1 - literary;
  • seng1 - vernacular (uncommon).
Note:
  • lhiang1-4 - vernacular;
  • lhen1 - literary.
  • Gan
  • Note:
    • xiang1 - vernacular;
    • xin1 - literary.
  • Hakka
  • Jin
  • Note:
    • xing1 - literary;
    • xi1 - vernacular (limited, e.g. 星宿).
  • Min Bei
  • Min Dong
  • Min Nan
  • Note:
    • chhiⁿ/chheⁿ - vernacular;
    • san - vernacular (limited, e.g. 零星);
    • seng - literary.
  • Wu
  • Xiang

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /ɕiŋ⁵⁵/
    Harbin /ɕiŋ⁴⁴/
    Tianjin /ɕiŋ²¹/
    Jinan /ɕiŋ²¹³/
    Qingdao /siŋ²¹³/
    Zhengzhou /siŋ²⁴/
    Xi'an /ɕiŋ²¹/
    Xining /ɕiə̃⁴⁴/
    Yinchuan /ɕiŋ⁴⁴/
    Lanzhou /ɕĩn³¹/
    Ürümqi /ɕiŋ⁴⁴/
    Wuhan /ɕin⁵⁵/
    Chengdu /ɕin⁵⁵/
    Guiyang /ɕin⁵⁵/
    Kunming /ɕĩ⁴⁴/
    Nanjing /sin³¹/
    Hefei /ɕin²¹/
    Jin Taiyuan /ɕi¹¹/ ~宿
    /ɕiəŋ¹¹/ 五~
    Pingyao /ɕiŋ¹³/
    /sei¹³/ 掃帚~
    Hohhot /ɕĩŋ³¹/ 星~
    /ɕi³¹/ 河~~
    Wu Shanghai /ɕiŋ⁵³/
    Suzhou /sin⁵⁵/
    Hangzhou /ɕin³³/
    Wenzhou /seŋ³³/
    Hui Shexian /siʌ̃³¹/
    Tunxi /sɛ¹¹/
    Xiang Changsha /din³³/
    Xiangtan /sian³³/
    /sin³³/
    Gan Nanchang /ɕiɑŋ⁴²/
    /ɕin⁴²/ ~子縣
    Hakka Meixian /sen⁴⁴/
    Taoyuan /sen²⁴/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /seŋ⁵³/
    Nanning /ɬɛŋ⁵⁵/
    /ɬeŋ⁵⁵/
    Hong Kong /siŋ⁵⁵/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /siŋ⁵⁵/
    /t͡sʰĩ⁵⁵/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /siŋ⁴⁴/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /saiŋ⁵⁴/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /t͡sʰẽ³³/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /seŋ²³/
    /sɛ²³/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (16)
    Final () (125)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () IV
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /seŋ/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /seŋ/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /sɛŋ/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /sɛjŋ/
    Li
    Rong
    /seŋ/
    Wang
    Li
    /sieŋ/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /sieŋ/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    xīng
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    xīng
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ seng ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*s-tsʰˁeŋ/
    English star

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 11371
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*sleːŋ/
    Notes

    Definitions[edit]

    Five-pointed star shape
    1. star; planet; heavenly body (Classifier: m;  c mn)
      星星  ―  xīngxing  ―  star
      /   ―  héngxīng  ―  (fixed) star
    2. star-shaped object
    3. star; celebrity
        ―  míngxīng  ―  bright star; celebrity
    4. weight marks on a steelyard
    5. a bit; a tiny bit
    6. tiny; minute
    7. whitish; white
    8. numerous and scattered everywhere; countless
    9. rapid; flying
    10. (dated or informal) Short for 星加坡 (Xīngjiāpō, “Singapore”).
      馬泰 / 马泰  ―  Xīng Mǎ Tài  ―  Singapore, Malaysia and Thailand
    11. A surname​.

    Synonyms[edit]

    Dialectal synonyms of 星星 (“star”) [map]
    Variety Location Words
    Classical Chinese
    Formal (Written Standard Chinese) , 星星
    Mandarin Beijing 星星
    Taiwan 星星
    Tianjin 星星
    Harbin 星星
    Shenyang , 星星兒
    Hailar
    Ulan Hot
    Tongliao
    Chifeng , 星星
    Bayanhot
    Jinan , 星星
    Muping 星兒
    Luoyang 星星
    Jiedian 星宿
    Xi'an 星星
    Zhengzhou 星星
    Xining 星星
    Xuzhou 星星
    Yinchuan 星星
    Lanzhou 星宿
    Ürümqi 星宿, 星星
    Wuhan 星斗,
    Chengdu 星宿兒, 星星兒, 星星
    Guiyang 星宿, 星星
    Guilin 星星
    Liuzhou 天星,
    Kunming 星宿
    Yangzhou
    Nanjing
    Hefei
    Sokuluk (Gansu Dungan) 星宿
    Masanchin (Shaanxi Dungan) 宿宿
    Cantonese Guangzhou
    Hong Kong , 星星
    Hong Kong (San Tin Weitou)
    Hong Kong (Kam Tin Weitou)
    Hong Kong (Ting Kok) 星星
    Hong Kong (Tung Ping Chau) 星星
    Macau
    Panyu
    Huadu (Huashan)
    Conghua
    Zengcheng
    Foshan 天星
    Nanhai (Shatou) 天星
    Shunde
    Sanshui 天星
    Gaoming (Mingcheng)
    Zhongshan (Shiqi) 天星
    Zhuhai (Qianshan) 天星
    Doumen (Shangheng Tanka) 天星
    Doumen
    Jiangmen (Baisha)
    Xinhui
    Taishan
    Kaiping (Chikan)
    Enping (Niujiang)
    Heshan (Yayao)
    Dongguan
    Bao'an (Shajing)
    Shaoguan , 星星
    Yunfu 星仔
    Yangjiang 天星
    Xinyi 天星
    Lianjiang , 天星
    Nanning 天星
    Wuzhou 天星
    Yulin 天星
    Hepu 星星
    Danzhou 星宿
    Kuala Lumpur
    Ho Chi Minh City
    Gan Nanchang 星子
    Lichuan 星仔
    Pingxiang 星子
    Hakka Meixian 星仔
    Xingning 星哩
    Huidong
    Qujiang 星子
    Xiaosanjiang 天星
    Luchuan 天星
    Changting 星宿
    Pingyu 星子
    Wuping 星子
    Liancheng 星宿
    Ninghua 星宿
    Yudu 星子,
    Ruijin 天星
    Shicheng
    Shangyou 星斗
    Miaoli (N. Sixian) 星仔
    Liudui (S. Sixian) 星仔
    Hsinchu (Hailu) 星仔
    Dongshi (Dabu)
    Hsinchu (Raoping) 星仔,
    Yunlin (Zhao'an)
    Hong Kong
    Senai 星星
    Singkawang
    Huizhou Jixi 天星
    Shexian 天星
    Qimen
    Jingde 天星
    Jin Taiyuan 星宿, 星星
    Pingyao 星宿
    Xinzhou 星宿
    Baochang 星星
    Jining 星星, 星宿
    Hohhot 星宿
    Baotou 星星, 星宿
    Dongsheng 星宿
    Linhe 星宿
    Haibowan 星宿
    Min Bei Jian'ou 星宿
    Dikou 星宿
    Songxi 星宿
    Zhenghe 星宿,
    Zhenqian 天星
    Jianyang 星宿
    Wuyishan 星宿
    Shibei 星宿
    Min Dong Fuzhou , 天星
    Changle 天星
    Fuqing , 天星
    Yongtai
    Gutian 天星
    Fu'an 天星
    Ningde 天星
    Shouning , 天星
    Zhouning 天星
    Fuding 天星
    Matsu 星斗, 星星
    Min Nan Xiamen
    Quanzhou
    Yongchun
    Dehua 天星
    Zhangzhou
    Changtai
    Hua'an
    Taipei
    Kaohsiung
    Tainan
    Taichung
    Wuqi
    Hsinchu
    Taitung
    Lukang
    Sanxia 天星
    Yilan
    Kinmen
    Magong
    Penang
    Longyan 天星
    Zhangping 天星
    Datian 天星
    Pingnan 天星
    Chaozhou
    Johor Bahru
    Wenchang
    Haikou
    Leizhou
    Puxian Min Putian
    Xianyou
    Pinghua Nanning 星子
    Guilin 星子
    Shehua Fu'an 星仔
    Fuding
    Luoyuan
    Sanming
    Shunchang
    Hua'an
    Guixi
    Cangnan
    Jingning
    Lishui
    Longyou
    Chaozhou
    Fengshun
    Wu Shanghai , 星星
    Suzhou , 星星
    Wuxi , 星星
    Hangzhou , 星星
    Wenzhou
    Chongming
    Danyang , 星星
    Jinhua , 星星 childish
    Ningbo , 星星
    Xiang Changsha 星子
    Shuangfeng 星子
    Xiangtan 星子
    Loudi 星子,
    Quanzhou 星子

    Compounds[edit]


    Japanese[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    1. star

    Readings[edit]

    Compounds[edit]

    Etymology 1[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    ほし
    Grade: 2
    kun’yomi

    /posi//fosi//hoɕi/

    From Old Japanese, from Proto-Japonic *pəsi. Found in the Man'yōshū, completed some time after 759 CE.[1]

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana ほし, rōmaji hoshi)

    1. a star
       (かぞ) ()れないくらいたくさんの (ほし) (かがや)いている
      kazoekirenai kurai takusan no hoshi ga kagayaite iru
      an endless number of stars are shining
      • 2014 May 2, “レオニンのぐうぞうかいしゃ [Leonin Iconoclast]”, in ニクスへの旅 [Journey into Nyx] (in Japanese), Wizards of the Coast:
         (ほし) (ぼし) () (ぞら)にあるべきです。ここは (われ) (われ) () (かい)。そして (われ) (われ) (こと) (われ) (われ) ()めます。」
        Hoshiboshi wa yozora ni aru beki desu. Koko wa wareware no sekai. Soshite wareware no koto wa wareware ga kimemasu.”
        “The stars belong in the night sky. This is our world. And we take matters into our own hands.”
    2. (tarot) the Star
    3. (loosely) a planet
      • 2009 March 30 [Jan 23 2004], Takeuchi, Naoko, “Actアクト 29トゥエンティナイン げんスリー 2人ふたり NEWニュー SOLDIERSソルジャーズ [Act 29: Infinity 3: 2 NEW SOLDIERS]”, in 美少女戦士Pretty GuardianセーラームーンSAILORMOON [Pretty Guardian SAILOR MOON], volume 6 (fiction, in Japanese), 6th edition, Tokyo: Kodansha, →ISBN, page 181–183:
        —— (うみ) (ほし) (かい) (おう) (せい) (しゅ) ()にもつ (しん) (かい) (せん) ()——セーラーネプチューン
        ——Umi no Hoshi Kaiōsei o shugo ni motsu shinkai no senshi ——Sērā Nepuchūn
        ——Warrior of the depths, keeper of Neptune the Sea Planet ——Sailor Neptune
        そして—— (かぜ) (ほし) (てん) (のう) (せい) (しゅ) ()にもつ (てん) (くう) (せん) () セーラーウラヌス  (さん) (じょう)
        Soshite ——Kaze no Hoshi Tennōsei o shugo ni motsu tenkū no senshi Sērā Uranusu sanjō!
        And I am ——the warrior of the ether, keeper of Uranus the Wind Planet. Sailor Uranus enters the scene!
    Derived terms[edit]

    Proper noun[edit]

    (hiragana ほし, rōmaji Hoshi)

    1. A surname​.

    Etymology 2[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    せい
    Grade: 2
    on’yomi

    From Middle Chinese (MC seŋ, “star”).

    The Singapore sense derives from the pre-World War Two kanji spelling 星加坡 (modern kanji spelling 新加坡) as borrowed from Chinese, itself a transliteration of Malay Singapura.

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Proper noun[edit]

    (hiragana せい, rōmaji Sei)

    1. one of the Twenty-Eight Mansions in the Chinese system of constellations
    2. (abbreviation) Singapore

    Suffix[edit]

    (hiragana せい, rōmaji -sei)

    1. (loosely, especially fiction) planet (suffix attached to the name of a planet)
      • 1996 February 20 [Feb 15 1988], Adachi, Mitsuru, “なにがなんだか 前編 [What’s What: First Chapter]”, in SHORT PROGRAMショート・プログラム [SHORT PROGRAM], volume 1 (fiction, in Japanese), 25th edition, Tokyo: Shogakukan, →ISBN, page 256:
        ——あ、わたくしマキシムAGFです。リプトン (せい)からやってまいりました。 () (きゅう) (さむ)さにおどろいてます。どぞよろしく。
        ——A, watakushi Makishimu Ējīefu desu. Riputon-sei kara yatte mairimashita. Chikyū no samusa ni odoroitemasu. Dozo yoroshiku.
        ——Oh, my name is Maxim AGF. I came here from planet Lipton. I’m still taken aback by Earth’s coldness. It is a pleasure to meet all of you.
    Derived terms[edit]

    References[edit]

    1. ^ c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 15, poem 3657), text here
    2. 2.0 2.1 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    3. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN

    Korean[edit]

    Hanja[edit]

    (eumhun (byeol seong))

    1. star, planet

    Compounds[edit]


    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    (tinh, tình)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.