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U+59D3, 姓
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-59D3

[U+59D2]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+59D4]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
8 strokes
Stroke order (Japan)
8 strokes

Han character[edit]

(radical 38, +5, 8 strokes, cangjie input 女竹手一 (VHQM), four-corner 45410, composition)

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 259, character 5
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 6178
  • Dae Jaweon: page 524, character 9
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 2, page 1037, character 12
  • Unihan data for U+59D3

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.

Glyph origin[edit]

Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*sʰlɯː
*sʰleːns
*sʰleːns, *ʔsreːŋ
*sʰleːns, *sʰleŋs
*sʰleːns
*sʰeːns
*sʰeːns
*sʰleːŋ, *sreŋs
*sreŋ
*sreŋ
*sreŋ
*sreŋ, *sleːŋ
*sreŋ
*sreŋ, *sreŋs
*sreŋ, *seːŋ
*sreŋ
*sreŋʔ
*sreŋs
*zreːŋ
*ʔsleŋ, *ʔsleŋs
*ʔsleŋ
*ʔsleŋ, *sʰleːŋ
*ʔsleŋ, *sʰleːŋ
*ʔsleŋ
*ʔsleŋ, *zleŋs, *zleŋʔ
*ʔsleŋ, *sʰleŋʔ
*ʔsleŋ
*ʔsleŋ
*ʔsleŋ
*sʰleŋ
*sʰleŋ
*sʰleŋʔ, *zleŋs, *zleŋ
*sʰleŋs
*zleŋs, *zleŋ
*zleŋs
*zleŋ
*zleŋ
*zleŋ
*zleŋʔ
*zleŋʔ
*seŋʔ, *seːŋs
*seŋʔ, *seːŋ
*sleŋs
*sleŋs
*l̥ʰeŋs
*ʔljeŋ, *sʰleːŋ
*sʰleːŋ
*sʰleːŋ, *sʰleːŋs
*sʰleːŋs
*sleːŋ
*sleːŋ
*sleːŋ
*sleːŋ
*seːŋ, *seːŋs
*seːŋ
*seːŋ, *seːŋʔ, *seːŋs
*seːŋ

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *sleŋs): semantic  + phonetic  (OC *sʰleːŋ, *sreŋs).

Etymology[edit]

Specialised form of (xìng): “human nature; what is inborn” > “surname; clan name”.

Pronunciation[edit]


Note:
  • sèng - literary;
  • sèⁿ, sìⁿ - vernacular.
  • Wu

  • Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (16)
    Final () (121)
    Tone (調) Departing (H)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /siᴇŋH/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /siɛŋH/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /siæŋH/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /siajŋH/
    Li
    Rong
    /siɛŋH/
    Wang
    Li
    /sĭɛŋH/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /si̯ɛŋH/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    xìng
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    xìng
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ sjengH ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*seŋ-s/
    English surname

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 11359
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*sleŋs/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. surname; family name; clan name
      Antonyms: (míng)
      怎麼拼寫 / 怎么拼写  ―  Nǐ de xìng zěnme pīnxiě?  ―  How do you spell your last name?
    2. to have the surname of
      /   ―  Nín guìxìng?  ―  What is your surname? [formal]
      /   ―  xìng Chén.  ―  My surname is Chen.
    3. A surname​.

    Compounds[edit]


    Japanese[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (common “Jōyō” kanji)

    1. clan
    2. surname

    Readings[edit]

    Compounds[edit]

    Etymology 1[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    かばね
    Grade: S
    kun’yomi

    From Old Japanese.[1][2]

    Ultimate derivation unclear. Some theories derive this as a Japanese compound of (kabu, stock, root) + (ne, root, origin) or (na, name). However, the required /u//a/ sound shift would be unusual.

    Another thought is that this might be a borrowing from, or somehow otherwise related to, Korean 골품 (golpum), a Sino-Korean term also spelled 骨品 (literally bones + goods), the name for a kind of kinship hierarchy that was prevalent in the Silla kingdom. This latter theory and its related “bone” sense might also account for the homophony with (kabane, corpse, dead body).

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana かばね, rōmaji kabane)

    1. a clan
      Synonym: (uji)
    2. (historical) a kind of hereditary title bestowed to clans in ancient Japan
    Derived terms[edit]

    Etymology 2[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    せい
    Grade: S
    on’yomi

    From Middle Chinese (MC siᴇŋH). The kan'on, so likely a later borrowing. Compare modern Min Nan reading sèⁿ.

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana せい, rōmaji sei)

    1. surname, family name
    2. clan
    Derived teerms[edit]
    Idioms[edit]

    Etymology 3[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    しょう
    Grade: S
    on’yomi

    /siau//ɕjɔː//ɕoː/

    From Middle Chinese (MC siᴇŋH). The goon, so likely the initial borrowing. Compare modern Hakka reading siang.

    This reading is less common than sei above.

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana しょう, rōmaji shō, historical hiragana しやう)

    1. (uncommon) surname, family name
    2. (uncommon) clan
    Derived terms[edit]

    Etymology 4[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    しょう > そう
    Grade: S
    Irregular

    A shift from shō above to use the 直音 (chokuon, "straight" pronunciation, dropping out any /j/ or /w/ glides).[1]

    This reading is not used in modern Japanese, and is only found in historical texts, such as the Utsubo Monogatari from the late 900s.

    Pronunciation[edit]

    • (Irregular reading)

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana そう, rōmaji )

    1. (historical, obsolete) surname, family name
    2. (historical, obsolete) clan

    References[edit]

    1. 1.0 1.1 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
    2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN

    Further reading[edit]


    Korean[edit]

    Hanja[edit]

    (seong) (hangeul )

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    (tính)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.