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U+59D3, 姓
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-59D3

[U+59D2]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+59D4]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
8 strokes
Stroke order (Japan)
8 strokes

Han character[edit]

(Kangxi radical 38, +5, 8 strokes, cangjie input 女竹手一 (VHQM), four-corner 45410, composition )

References[edit]

  • Kangxi Dictionary: page 259, character 5
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 6178
  • Dae Jaweon: page 524, character 9
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 2, page 1037, character 12
  • Unihan data for U+59D3

Chinese[edit]

trad.
simp. #
alternative forms 𤯕
𤯣
𤯧
𤯬

Glyph origin[edit]

Phono-semantic compound (形聲形声, OC *sleŋs) : semantic (woman; female) + phonetic (OC *sʰleːŋ, *sreŋs).

Etymology[edit]

Specialised form of (xìng): “human nature; what is inborn” > “surname; clan name”.

Pronunciation[edit]


Note: síng - literary.
Note:
  • sèng - literary;
  • sèⁿ, sìⁿ - vernacular.

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (16)
Final () (121)
Tone (調) Departing (H)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Baxter sjengH
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/siᴇŋH/
Pan
Wuyun
/siɛŋH/
Shao
Rongfen
/siæŋH/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/siajŋH/
Li
Rong
/siɛŋH/
Wang
Li
/sĭɛŋH/
Bernard
Karlgren
/si̯ɛŋH/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
xìng
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
sing3
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
xìng
Middle
Chinese
‹ sjengH ›
Old
Chinese
/*seŋ-s/
English surname

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 11359
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*sleŋs/

Definitions[edit]

  1. surname; family name; clan name
    怎麼拼寫 [MSC, trad.]
    怎么拼写 [MSC, simp.]
    Nǐ de xìng zěnme pīnxiě? [Pinyin]
    How do you spell your last name?
      ―  Nín guìxìng?  ―  What is your surname? [honorific]
    Coordinate term: (míng)
  2. to have the surname of
      ―  xìng Chén.  ―  My surname is Chen.
  3. (figurative, often officialese) to belong to; to be classified as
    黨媒党媒  ―  dǎngméi xìng Dǎng  ―  the Party's media must follow the Party's will
    [MSC, trad.]
    [MSC, simp.]
    xìngxìng shè [Pinyin]
    follow the capitalist way or follow the socialist way
  4. a surname

Compounds[edit]

Descendants[edit]

Sino-Xenic ():
  • Japanese: (せい) (sei)
  • Korean: 성(姓) (seong)
  • Vietnamese: tính ()

Others:

References[edit]

Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(common “Jōyō” kanji)

  1. clan
  2. surname

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Kanji in this term
かばね
Grade: S
kun’yomi

From Old Japanese.[1][2]

Ultimate derivation unclear. Some theories derive this as a Japanese compound of (kabu, stock, root) + (ne, root, origin) or (na, name). However, the required /u//a/ sound shift would be unusual.

Another thought is that this might be a borrowing from, or somehow otherwise related to, Korean 골품 (golpum), a Sino-Korean term also spelled 骨品 (literally bones + goods), the name for a kind of kinship hierarchy that was prevalent in the Silla kingdom. This latter theory and its related “bone” sense might also account for the homophony with (kabane, corpse, dead body).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

(かばね) (kabane

  1. a clan
    Synonym: (uji)
  2. (historical) a kind of hereditary title bestowed to clans in ancient Japan
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Kanji in this term
せい
Grade: S
on’yomi

From Middle Chinese (MC sjengH). The kan'on, so likely a later borrowing. Compare modern Min Nan reading sèⁿ.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

(せい) (sei

  1. surname, family name
  2. clan
Derived terms[edit]
Idioms[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

Kanji in this term
しょう
Grade: S
on’yomi

/siau//ɕjɔː//ɕoː/

From Middle Chinese (MC sjengH). The goon, so likely the initial borrowing. Compare modern Hakka reading siang.

This reading is less common than sei above.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

(しょう) (shōしやう (syau)?

  1. (uncommon) surname, family name
  2. (uncommon) clan
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 4[edit]

Kanji in this term
しょう > そう
Grade: S
irregular

A shift from shō above to use the 直音 (chokuon, "straight" pronunciation, dropping out any /j/ or /w/ glides).[1]

This reading is not used in modern Japanese, and is only found in historical texts, such as the Utsubo Monogatari from the late 900s.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

(そう) (

  1. (historical, obsolete) surname, family name
  2. (historical, obsolete) clan

References[edit]

  1. 1.0 1.1 Shōgaku Tosho (1988) 国語大辞典(新装版) [Unabridged Dictionary of Japanese (Revised Edition)] (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan, →ISBN
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 Matsumura, Akira, editor (2006) 大辞林 [Daijirin] (in Japanese), Third edition, Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN

Further reading[edit]

Korean[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Middle Chinese (MC sjengH). Recorded as Middle Korean 셔ᇰ (syeng) (Yale: syeng) in Hunmong Jahoe (訓蒙字會 / 훈몽자회), 1527.

Pronunciation[edit]

  • (SK Standard/Seoul) IPA(key): [sʰɘ(ː)ŋ]
  • Phonetic hangul: [(ː)]
    • Though still prescribed in Standard Korean, most speakers in both Koreas no longer distinguish vowel length.

Hanja[edit]

Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

Wikisource

(eumhun 성씨 (seongssi seong))

  1. Hanja form? of (clan; family name).

Compounds[edit]

References[edit]

  • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [3]

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

: Hán Nôm readings: tính

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.