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See also:
U+9EE8, 黨
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-9EE8

[U+9EE7]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+9EE9]

Translingual[edit]

Japanese
Simplified
Traditional

Han character[edit]

(Kangxi radical 203, +8, 20 strokes, cangjie input 火月口田火 (FBRWF), four-corner 90331, composition𫩠)

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 1520, character 36
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 48132
  • Dae Jaweon: page 2055, character 18
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 7, page 4750, character 5
  • Unihan data for U+9EE8

Chinese[edit]

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Qin slip script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
黨-slip.svg 黨-seal.svg 黨-bigseal.svg

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *taːŋʔ, *tʰaːŋʔ): phonetic (OC *djaŋ, *djaŋs) + semantic (black) – black; dark.

Etymology 1[edit]

trad.
simp. *
alternative forms
Wikipedia has articles on:
  • (Written Standard Chinese?)
  • (Cantonese)

The endoactive of (OC *taːŋ, “to be equal of”), literally "that which is equal in rank" (Schuessler, 2007).

Pronunciation[edit]



Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (5)
Final () (101)
Tone (調) Rising (X)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () I
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/tɑŋX/
Pan
Wuyun
/tɑŋX/
Shao
Rongfen
/tɑŋX/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/taŋX/
Li
Rong
/tɑŋX/
Wang
Li
/tɑŋX/
Bernard
Karlgren
/tɑŋX/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
dǎng
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
dong2
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
dǎng
Middle
Chinese
‹ tangX ›
Old
Chinese
/*tˁaŋʔ/
English 500 families; relatives

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/2
No. 11113
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*taːŋʔ/

Definitions[edit]

  1. community; fellow community member
    /   ―  xiāngdǎng  ―  neighbours; local community
  2. gang; faction
    /   ―  jiédǎng  ―  to form a faction
  3. (politics) party
    /   ―  zhèngdǎng  ―  political party
    自由 / 自由  ―  Zìyóudǎng  ―  Liberal Party
    1. (chiefly Mainland China, specifically) the Communist Party of China
      十八 / 十八  ―  Dǎng de Shíbā Dà  ―  The 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China
      / [Cantonese]  ―  dong2 tit3 [Jyutping]  ―  The "Commie" MTR
    2. (Vietnam, specifically) Communist Party of Vietnam
    3. (Wa State, specifically) United Wa State Party
  4. (used as suffix in Internet slang) a limited group or class of people, or a member of it
    標題 / 标题  ―  biāotídǎng  ―  a person who writes articles or news using off-topic or misleading headlines; these kinds of people
  5. A surname​.

Compounds[edit]

Descendants[edit]

Sino-Xenic ():
  • Japanese: (とう) ()
  • Korean: (, dang)
  • Vietnamese: đảng ()

Others:

Etymology 2[edit]

trad.
simp. *

Identified as an ancient Chu dialect word in Han Dynasty scholar Yang Xiong's Fangyan.

STEDT compares it to Proto-Sino-Tibetan *m/s-twaŋ (to see; to show), whence Tibetan མཐོང (mthong, to see; to perceive).

Alternatively, it may be of Austroasiatic origin. Compare Proto-Mon-Khmer *tiɲ ~ *təɲ (to know), whence Khmer ដឹង (dəng), Eastern Bru ດັງ (dáng) (Behr, 2008; Ye, 2014).

Perhaps related to (dǒng, “to understand”) (Schuessler, 2007).

Pronunciation[edit]


Definitions[edit]

  1. (ancient Chu dialect) to know

Etymology 3[edit]

trad.
simp. *

Pronunciation[edit]



Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 2/2
No. 11132
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*tʰaːŋʔ/
Notes

Definitions[edit]

  1. Alternative form of (tǎng).

References[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Shinjitai

Kyūjitai

Kanji[edit]

(uncommon “Hyōgai” kanjikyūjitai kanji, shinjitai form )

  1. (political) party

Readings[edit]

Noun[edit]

(とう) ( (kyūjitai, shinjitai )

  1. Kyūjitai form of : political party

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

(eumhun 무리 (muri dang))

  1. Hanja form? of (political party).

Compounds[edit]


Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

: Hán Nôm readings: đảng, đoảng

Noun[edit]

  1. chữ Hán form of đảng (party).