如何

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Chinese[edit]

as (if); such as
 
carry; what; how; why; which
simp. and trad.
(如何)

Etymology[edit]

Literally: like what?

Pronunciation[edit]


Adverb[edit]

如何 (formal)

  1. how
  2. how about ...? (used to make a suggestion)

Synonyms[edit]

Derived terms[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Kanji in this term
Grade: S Grade: 2
Irregular

From Old Japanese. Possibly from older form だう ‎(dau), much like the shift from かう ‎(kau) → こう ‎(, like this, this way), or さう ‎(sau) → そう ‎(, like that, that way).

The kanji spelling is an example of jukujikun, using the corresponding Chinese term for the spelling and the underlying Japanese root word for the reading.

Pronunciation[edit]

Adverb[edit]

如何 ‎(hiragana どう, romaji )

  1. in what manner, how
  2. what about... (used to make a suggestion)
Usage notes[edit]

The term is generally considered more prosaic and informal than the synonym いかが ‎(ikaga).

More commonly spelled in hiragana as どう. The kanji spelling is rare.

Etymology 2[edit]

Kanji in this term
Grade: S Grade: 2
Irregular

From Old Japanese. Appears to be a compound of ‎(i, uncertain element, might be the い prefix found in Old Japanese as an intensifier) +‎ ‎(ka, the question marker particle).

The kanji spelling is an example of jukujikun, using the corresponding Chinese term for the spelling and the underlying Japanese root word for the reading.

Pronunciation[edit]

  • (Irregular reading)
  • IPA(key): [ika̠]

Adjective[edit]

如何 ‎(-na inflection, hiragana いか, romaji ika)

  1. what kind of
Usage notes[edit]

Some dictionaries[2] class this as a bound morpheme. In practice, it generally conjugates and behaves as a regular -na adjective. In formal writing, this is more commonly encountered using the classical attributive form 如何なる ‎(ikanaru).

Inflection[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

Kanji in this term
Grade: S Grade: 2
Irregular

/ika ni ka/ → */ikanka//ikanga//ikaga/

Originally a phrase consisting of 如何 ‎(ika, what kind) +‎ ‎(ni, adverbial particle) +‎ ‎(ka, question marker particle).[2][1]

Pronunciation[edit]

Adverb[edit]

如何 ‎(hiragana いかが, romaji ikaga)

  1. in what manner, how
  2. what about... (used to make a suggestion)
Usage notes[edit]

The term ikaga is generally considered more formal and polite than the synonym どう ‎().

More commonly spelled in hiragana as いかが. The kanji spelling is rare.

Etymology 4[edit]

Kanji in this term
Grade: S Grade: 2
Irregular

/ika ni//ikan/

Originally a phrase consisting of 如何 ‎(ika, what kind) +‎ ‎(ni, adverbial particle),[2][1] the normal adverbial form of adjective ika above.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

如何 ‎(hiragana いかん, romaji ikan)

  1. the whatevers, the whys and wherefores
    理由 (りゆう)如何 (いかん) ()わず
    riyū no ikan o towazu
    without getting into the whys and wherefores of the reasons

Adverb[edit]

如何 ‎(hiragana いかん, romaji ikan)

  1. howsoever, however [it may be]
Usage notes[edit]

Generally used at the end of a sentence to express doubt.

Derived terms[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan