如何

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Chinese[edit]

as (if); such as
 
carry; what; how; why; which
simp. and trad.
(如何)

Etymology[edit]

Literally: like what?

Pronunciation[edit]


Adverb[edit]

如何 (formal)

  1. how
    如何游泳  ―  Tā jiāo wǒ rúhé yóuyǒng.  ―  She taught me how to swim.
    現在感覺如何 / 现在感觉如何  ―  Nǐ xiànzài gǎnjiào rúhé?  ―  How do you feel now?
    覺得計劃如何 / 觉得计划如何  ―  Nǐ jiàode zhè ge jìhuà rúhé?  ―  What do you think of this plan?
  2. how about ...? (used to make a suggestion)
    週六如何 / 周六如何  ―  Xià zhōuliù rúhé?  ―  How about next Saturday?

Synonyms[edit]

Dialectal synonyms of 怎樣 ("how")
Variety Location Words
Classical Classical 如何
Mandarin Beijing 怎麼樣怎樣
Cantonese Guangzhou 點樣
Hong Kong 點樣
Min Dong Fuzhou 將樣蔣樣
Min Nan Quanzhou 障仔怎樣按怎
Xiamen 按怎
Zhangzhou 按怎
Taipei 按怎按怎樣
Kaohsiung 按怎按怎樣
Wu Shanghai 哪能

Derived terms[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Kanji in this term
Grade: S Grade: 2
Irregular

From Old Japanese. Possibly from older form だう ‎(dau), much like the shift from かう ‎(kau) → こう ‎(, like this, this way), or さう ‎(sau) → そう ‎(, like that, that way).

The kanji spelling is an example of jukujikun, using the corresponding Chinese term for the spelling and the underlying Japanese root word for the reading.

Pronunciation[edit]

Adverb[edit]

如何 ‎(hiragana どう, romaji )

  1. in what manner, how
  2. what about... (used to make a suggestion)
Usage notes[edit]

The term is generally considered more prosaic and informal than the synonym いかが ‎(ikaga).

More commonly spelled in hiragana as どう. The kanji spelling is rare.

Etymology 2[edit]

Kanji in this term
Grade: S Grade: 2
Irregular

From Old Japanese. Appears to be a compound of ‎(i, uncertain element, might be the い prefix found in Old Japanese as an intensifier) +‎ ‎(ka, the question marker particle).

The kanji spelling is an example of jukujikun, using the corresponding Chinese term for the spelling and the underlying Japanese root word for the reading.

Pronunciation[edit]

  • (Irregular reading)
  • IPA(key): [ika̠]

Adjective[edit]

如何 ‎(-na inflection, hiragana いか, romaji ika)

  1. what kind of
Usage notes[edit]

Some dictionaries[2] class this as a bound morpheme. In practice, it generally conjugates and behaves as a regular -na adjective. In formal writing, this is more commonly encountered using the classical attributive form 如何なる ‎(ikanaru).

Inflection[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

Kanji in this term
Grade: S Grade: 2
Irregular

/ika ni ka/ → */ikanka//ikanga//ikaga/

Originally a phrase consisting of 如何 ‎(ika, what kind) +‎ ‎(ni, adverbial particle) +‎ ‎(ka, question marker particle).[2][1]

Pronunciation[edit]

Adverb[edit]

如何 ‎(hiragana いかが, romaji ikaga)

  1. in what manner, how
  2. what about... (used to make a suggestion)
Usage notes[edit]

The term ikaga is generally considered more formal and polite than the synonym どう ‎().

More commonly spelled in hiragana as いかが. The kanji spelling is rare.

Etymology 4[edit]

Kanji in this term
Grade: S Grade: 2
Irregular

/ika ni//ikan/

Originally a phrase consisting of 如何 ‎(ika, what kind) +‎ ‎(ni, adverbial particle),[2][1] the normal adverbial form of adjective ika above.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

如何 ‎(hiragana いかん, romaji ikan)

  1. the whatevers, the whys and wherefores
    理由 (りゆう)如何 (いかん) ()わず
    riyū no ikan o towazu
    without getting into the whys and wherefores of the reasons

Adverb[edit]

如何 ‎(hiragana いかん, romaji ikan)

  1. howsoever, however [it may be]
Usage notes[edit]

Generally used at the end of a sentence to express doubt.

Derived terms[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan