# 幾何

## Chinese

### Etymology

geometry
First used in Xu Guangqi and Matteo Ricci's translation of Euclid's Elements in 1607. The method and origin of derivation is disputed.

### Pronunciation 1

how much; how many; several
how much; how many; several; a few; almost

carry; what; how
carry; what; how; why; which

simp. (几何)

Note: Erhua-ed pronunciation is only used for the geometry sense.

Rime
Character
Initial () (28) (33)
Final () (20) (94)
Tone (調) Rising (X) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open Open
Division () III I
Fanqie
Baxter kj+jX ha
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/kɨiX/ /ɦɑ/
Pan
Wuyun
/kɨiX/ /ɦɑ/
Shao
Rongfen
/kiəiX/ /ɣɑ/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/kɨjX/ /ɦa/
Li
Rong
/kiəiX/ /ɣɑ/
Wang
Li
/kĭəiX/ /ɣɑ/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ke̯iX/ /ɣɑ/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
gei2 ho4
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle
Chinese
‹ kjɨjX › ‹ ha ›
Old
Chinese
/*kəjʔ/ /*[ɡ]ˁaj/
English few; how many what

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
No. 5800 7458
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1 1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*kɯlʔ/ /*ɡaːl/

1. (literary) how much; how many
女儿芳龄几何 [MSC, simp.]
Nín nǚ'ér fānglíng jǐhé? [Pinyin]
How old is your daughter? [honorific]

#### Noun

1. geometry [from 1607]

#### Descendants

Sino-Xenic (幾何):
• Japanese: 幾何(きか) (kika)
• Korean: 기하(幾何) (giha)
• Vietnamese: kỉ hà (幾何)

### Pronunciation 2

how much; how many; several
how much; how many; several; a few; almost

carry; what; how
carry; what; how; why; which

simp. (几何)
alternative forms 幾好几好

## Japanese

### Etymology 1

Kanji in this term

kan'on

Shortening of 幾何学 (kikagaku, geometry).[1][2]

First attested in the early Meiji period, in a text from 1886.[1]

#### Noun

()() (kika

1. [1886] Short for 幾何学 (kikagaku): geometry

### Etymology 2

Kanji in this term
いく
ばく
kun'yomi irregular
For pronunciation and definitions of 幾何 – see the following entry.
 【幾許いくばく】 [adverb] how much, how many [adverb] (usually followed by か (ka)), few, a little bit [adverb] a little bit, not much Alternative spelling幾ばく 【幾許こきし】 [adverb] many, a lot Alternative spellings幾ばく, こきだ, ここだ, ここば, ここら 【幾許いくだ】 [adverb] a little bit, not much Alternative spelling幾ばく
(This term, 幾何, is an alternative spelling of the above term.)

#### Usage notes

The kanji spelling is an orthographic borrowing from Chinese 幾何几何 (jǐhé).

### References

1. Shōgaku Tosho (1988) 国語大辞典（新装版） [Unabridged Dictionary of Japanese (Revised Edition)] (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan, →ISBN
2. Matsumura, Akira, editor (2006), 大辞林 [Daijirin] (in Japanese), Third edition, Tokyo: Sanseidō, →ISBN

## Vietnamese

chữ Hán Nôm in this term