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U+60A8, 您

CJK Unified Ideographs


Stroke order
11 strokes

Han character[edit]

(Kangxi radical 61, +7, 11 strokes, cangjie input 人火心 (OFP), four-corner 27339, composition )


  • KangXi: not present, would follow page 388, character 34
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 10712
  • Dae Jaweon: page 721, character 23
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 4, page 2301, character 2
  • Unihan data for U+60A8


simp. #
alternative forms

Glyph origin[edit]

Ideogrammic compound (會意): (you) + (heart). (MC sim) may also phonetically signify the original -m ending (Yuan et al., 1996).


This character was not listed in Sui/Tang rhyme books. First attested in Jin/Yuan-era literature, when it was also written as and probably pronounced as *nim at the time (Lü, 1940; Norman, 1988). The pronoun was used both in the singular and the plural.

The pronoun used in Jin/Yuan-era literature is generally thought to be a fusion of 你們你们 (nǐmen, “you (plural)”) or 你每 (nǐměi, “you (plural)”) (Lü, 1940; Norman, 1988). Compare (tān, “he, she (polite)”) ( < 他們他们 (tāmen, “they”)).

The honorific usage may simply be a development of the plural usage (Norman, 1988); compare English you, French vous. However, others have argued for a different etymology for the honorific pronoun. Wang (1984) and Lü (1985) argue that it is a contraction of 你老 (“you (honorific for seniors)”): /ni lau//nil//nin/. Alternatively, Zhang (2001) suggests that it comes from (MC nyin), an honorific used in Buddhist texts from the Han dynasty.

In Cantonese and Hakka, this character is simply read as ; in Teochew, it is read as .



  1. (polite, honorific, sometimes sarcastic) you (usually singular, may be plural)
  2. (archaic or dialectal) you (plural)
  3. (archaic) thou; you (singular)

Usage notes[edit]

  • (honorific you): Some speakers consider 您們您们 (nínmen) to be ungrammatical and use (nín) in both singular and plural contexts.



See also[edit]

Standard Mandarin Chinese personal pronouns
Person Singular Plural
1st () 我們我们 (wǒmen)
inclusive 咱們咱们 (zánmen)
2nd male/indefinite () 你們你们 (nǐmen)
female () 妳們你们 (nǐmen)
deity () 祢們祢们 (nǐmen)
polite (nín) 你們你们 (nǐmen)
您們您们 (nínmen)
3rd male/indefinite () 他們他们 (tāmen)
female () 她們她们 (tāmen)
deity () 祂們祂们 (tāmen)
animal () 牠們它们 (tāmen)
inanimate () 它們它们 (tāmen)



(uncommon “Hyōgai” kanji)

  1. You



Han character[edit]

: Hán Nôm readings: nâm

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.