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U+60A8, 您
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-60A8

[U+60A7]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+60A9]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
11 strokes

Han character[edit]

(radical 61 +7, 11 strokes, cangjie input 人火心 (OFP), four-corner 27339, composition)

References[edit]

  • KangXi: not present, would follow page 388, character 34
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 10712
  • Dae Jaweon: page 721, character 23
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 4, page 2301, character 2
  • Unihan data for U+60A8

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.
alt. forms
𠑓

Glyph origin[edit]

Ideogrammic compound (會意):  (you) +  (heart).

Etymology[edit]

This character was not listed in Sui/Tang rhyme books. First attested in Jin/Yuan-era novels, when it was also written as (MC ȵiɪm, ȵiɪmX), and occurred predominantly in attributive environments, forming complementary distribution with () in other cases. Originally, was a pronoun for both 2nd sg. and 2nd pl., and 你每 (nǐměi) (> 你們你们 (nǐmen)) was an equilibrating disyllabic version of 您, which retains the -m syllable coda of disappearing in Mandarin. Later, in the Beijing dialect, - (men) was restricted to purely a plural suffix, and restricted to purely a 2nd sg. honorific pronoun, although the 2nd pl. hon. 您們您们 (nínmen) is still considered ungrammatical by some speakers. The plural sense of is retained in the Tianjin dialect:

外頭溜達溜達 [Tianjin Mandarin, trad.]
外头溜达溜达 [Tianjin Mandarin, simp.]
Nín le xiān liáo, wǒ dào wàitóu liūda liūda. [Pinyin]
Please continue your conversation. I'll just be having a walk outside.

[1][2]

Pronunciation[edit]


Definitions[edit]

  1. (polite) you
  2. (dialectal) you (plural)

Synonyms[edit]

Compounds[edit]

See also[edit]

Standard Chinese personal pronouns
Person Singular Plural
1st () 我們我们 (wǒmen)
inclusive 咱們咱们 (zánmen)
2nd male/indefinite () 你們你们 (nǐmen)
female () 妳們你们 (nǐmen)
deity () 祢們祢们 (nǐmen)
polite 你們你们 (nǐmen)
您們您们 (nínmen)
3rd male/indefinite () 他們他们 (tāmen)
female () 她們她们 (tāmen)
deity () 祂們祂们 (tāmen)
animal () 牠們它们 (tāmen)
inanimate () 它們它们 (tāmen)

References[edit]

  1. ^ 吕叔湘 (Lü Shuxiang),《释您,俺,咱,喒,附论们字》,in 《吕叔湘全集》第二卷 汉语语法论文集。
  2. ^ 张俊阁,《近代汉语第二人称代词“您(恁)”的来源》,聊城大学学报(社会科学版),2010年第1期。

Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(uncommon “Hyōgai” kanji)

  1. You

Readings[edit]


Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(nâm)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.